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Introduction Interpretation of sports rules is a tool widely used by coaches in order to improve performance of their teams and athletes ( Gracia et al., 2014 ; Hill-Haas et al., 2010 ). Sports rule modifications, such as in court dimensions or the number of active players, may cause an improvement in athletes’ physical conditioning ( Cormery et al., 2008 ; Klusemann et al., 2012 ; Mikołajec et al., 2012), as well as technical (Delextrat and Martinez, 2014) and tactical skill levels (Sampaio and Maçãs, 2012). The effect of rule modification has always been

References Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Morouço P, Vilas-Boas JP. Predicting the intracyclic variation of the velocity of the centre of mass from segmental velocities in Butterfly stroke: A pilot study. J Sports Sci Med , 2008; 7: 201-209 Barbosa TM, Costa MJ, Marinho DA, Coelho J, Moreira M, Silva AJ. Modeling the links between young swimmers’ performance: energetic and biomechanical profiles. Pediatr Exerc Sci , 2010a; 22: 379-391 Barbosa TM, Bragada JA, Reis VM, Marinho DA, Carvalho C, Silva AJ. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming

References Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control . Freeman, New York; 1997 Beauchamp MR. Efficacy beliefs within relational and group contexts in sport. In: Lavallee S, Jowett D (Eds.) Social psychology in sport , Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, 181-93; 2007 Bray CD, Whaley DE. Team cohesion, effort, and objective individual performance of high school basketball players. Sport Psychol , 2001; 15: 260-75 Carron AV, Brawley LR, Widmeyer WN. The measurement of cohesiveness in sport groups. In: Duda JL (Ed.) Advances in sport and exercise psychology

Introduction Performance is among key outcomes in sport psychology ( Harmison, 2011 ; Weinberg and Gould, 2007 ) and satisfaction with one’s own performance is a relevant indicator reflecting athletes’ perception of own or team’s level of play ( Nicholls et al., 2012 ). Performance and satisfaction with one’s own performance depend on modifiable factors, such as the use of psychological strategies by athletes ( Gould et al., 1999 ; Krane and Williams, 2006 ). Although cross-sectional associations between the use of psychological strategies and athletes

References Alp I. Performance Evaluation of Goalkeepers of the World Cup. J Sports Sci, 2006; 19(2): 119-125 Anderson TR, Sharp GP. A new measure of football batters using DEA. Ann Oper Res, 1997; 73: 141-155 Barros CP, Assaf A, Sá-Earp F. Brazilian Football League Technical Efficiency: A Simar and Wilson Approach. JSE , 2010; 11(6): 641-651 Boscá JE, Liern V, Martínez A, Sala R. Increasing offensive or defensive efficiency? An analysis of Italian and Spanish football. Omega, 2009; 37: 63-78 Charnes A, Cooper WW, Rhodes E. Measuring the efficiency of

References Akers M, Wolff S, Buttross T. An empirical examination of the factors affecting the success of NCAA division I college basketball teams. Journal of Business and Economic Studies , 1991; 1: 57-71 Csataljay G, James N, Hughes M, Dancs H.Performance indicators that distinguish winning and losing teams in basketball. Int. J Perform Anal Sport , 2009; 9: 60- 66 Durkovic T, Gjergja D, Marelic N, Antekolovic L, Resetar T. The analysis of two groups of basketball teams based on the situational parameters of the game. In D. Milanovic and F. Prot (Eds.), 4th

Introduction Water polo is a sport with a growing worldwide interest, particularly for research purposes, with a noticeable increase in the number of recent publications ( Prieto et al., 2013 ). The available research has tried to identify the performance characteristics of the game for both men´s and women´s competitions ( Escalante et al., 2011 , 2012 ; Lupo et al., 2010 , 2012 ). The main aim of the performance analysis is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the water polo teams in order to improve their performance ( Carling et al., 2005 , 2009

recreational triathlon ( WTC, 2016 ). High values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) 2 have been linked to performance levels in ultra-endurance races ( Whyte et al., 2000 ). Furthermore, other performance factors such as core temperature, feeding, hydration and even muscle cramps during the race have been related to performance in long-distance events ( Laursen, 2011 ; Michalczyk et al. 2016 ,). Body composition is also related to performance in endurance sports, including triathlons. An excess of body weight is especially

sport climbing. Available. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte , 2009; 9(35): 264 - 298 España-Romero V, Ortega Porcel FB, Artero EG, Jiménez-Pavón D, Gutiérrez Sainz A, Castillo Garzón MJ, Ruiz JR. Climbing time to exhaustion is a determinant of climbing performance in high-level sport climbers. Eur J Appl Physiol , 2009; 107 (5): 517-25 Ferguson RA, Brown MD. Arterial blood pressure and forearm vascular conductance responses to sustained and rhythmic

. Thus, it is important to establish if diurnal variations in performance exist for optimal training approaches and match preparation strategies to be implemented. Chtourou and Souissi (2012) concluded training in the morning could improve morning performance and reduce diurnal fluctuations in performance across the morning and evening. Furthermore, in some cases morning training increases physical performance more than training in the evening ( Chtourou et al., 2012 ). In contrast, chronic training in the evening leads to higher daily variations in physical