Veronika Stara, Mojmir Mach, Eduard Ujhazy, Boris Liptak and Zdenka Gasparova
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Susanta Nath, Priyanka Rakshit and Valerio Matozzo
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Kandaswamy Selvakumar, Senthamilselvan Bavithra, Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy and Jagadeesan Arunakaran
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Enver Ersoy Andeden, Sahlan Ozturk and Belma Aslim
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Sainis I, Fokas D, Vareli K, Tzakos AG
Different toxic compounds can target the cholinergic nervous system. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 220.127.116.11) is one of the most crucial components of the cholinergic nervous system and thus many of the toxins interact with this enzyme. As to inhibitors, nerve agents used as chemical warfare, some insecticides, and drugs influencing the cholinergic system are common examples of AChE inhibitors. Once inhibited by a neurotoxic compound, a serious cholinergic crisis can occur. On the other hand, sensitivity of AChE to the inhibition can be used for analytical purposes. In this study, a simple disposable biosensor with AChE as a recognition element was devised. AChE was immobilized onto a cellulose matrix and indoxylacetate was used as a chromogenic substrate. The enzyme reaction was assessed by the naked eye using arbitrary units and pyridostigmine, tacrine, paraoxon, carbofuran, soman and VX were assayed as selected inhibitors. A good stability of the biosensors was found, with no aging over a quarter of a year and minimal sensitivity to the interference of organic solvents. The limit of detection ranged from 10 to 100 nmol/L for the compounds tested with a sample volume of 40 μL
Olena Toziuk, Olga Krasna, Olena Kryvoviaz, Victoria Rodinkova, Andrii Melnyk, Tanya Ivko, Alona Voronkina and Viktoriia Hutsol
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7. Kolomoets OS
Nataša Mrvová, Martin Škandík, Štefan Bezek, Natália Sedláčková, Mojmír Mach, Zdenka Gaspárová, Dominika Luptáková, Ivan Padej and Lucia Račková
radicals in canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Exp Gerontol 38 (6): 711–9.
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Stolc S, Snirc V, Gajdosikova A, Gajdosik A, Gasparova Z, Ondrejickova O, Sotnikova R, Viola A, Rapta P, Jariabka P
Jana Mizerovská, Helena Dračínská, Volker Arlt, Jiří Hudeček, Petr Hodek, Heinz Schmeiser, Eva Frei and Marie Stiborová
Rat cytochromes P450 oxidize 3-aminobenzanthrone, a human metabolite of the carcinogenic environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone
3-Aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) is a human metabolite of carcinogenic 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), which occurs in diesel exhaust and air pollution. Understanding which cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in metabolic activation and/or detoxication of this toxicant is important in the assessment of an individual's susceptibility to this substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of rat hepatic CYPs to oxidize 3-ABA and to examine the metabolites formed during such an oxidation. The metabolites formed by CYPs in rat hepatic microsomes were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 3-ABA is oxidized by these enzymes to three metabolites, which were separated by HPLC as distinguish product peaks. Using co-chromatography with synthetic standards, two of them were identified to be oxidative metabolites of 3-ABA, N-hydroxy-3-ABA and 3-NBA. The structure of another 3-ABA metabolite remains to be characterized. To define the role of rat hepatic CYP enzymes in metabolism of 3-ABA, we investigated the modulation of its oxidation using different inducers of CYPs for treatment of rats to enrich the liver microsomes with individual CYPs. Based on these studies, we attribute most of 3-ABA oxidation in rat hepatic microsomes to CYP2B, followed by CYP1A, although a role of other hepatic CYPs cannot be ruled out. Inhibition of 3-ABA oxidation by selective inhibitors of individual CYPs, supported this finding.
Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology) and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators) have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium.