Albert O. Hirschman’s Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States (1970, in German 1974) deconstructs a stereotype of economic behavior that large parts of social sciences define and analyze as rational and goal-oriented. Hirschman confronts the image of a rational and efficient economy, constantly working towards maximizing output, with the fluctuation and deterioration of its performance. Exit and Voice constitute, according to Hirschman, the fundamental mechanisms available to counteract this tendency for performance decline. He introduces market and non-market forces into his analysis, thereby addressing both economic and political mechanisms, in order to advance the mutual recognition of both disciplines, which Hirschman deems insufficient. At the time of its publication, Hirschman’s study was appreciated for its cross-disciplinary approach. In the eyes of the author however, what grants the book current relevance is its analytical compatibility with devastating present-day problems.
der Verfügungen und Erkenntnisse der politischen Obrigkeiten (d.i. der politischen Behörden und Gemeindevorsteher) erlassen wird, RGBl 1851/127. In its preamble, this decree detailed its two closely related objectives: to secure the authority of state officials – including the hybrid type of elected municipal representatives – for the performance of their official duties and to guarantee the swift and precise execution of their orders. The decree regulated the enforcement of rules and prohibitions in general and proper behaviour in public in particular, the summons
Peter Becker, Peter Collin, Timon de Groot and Thomas Rohringer
bureaucracy, the article by Peter Becker shifts the focus towards the written performances of the subjects of bureaucratic procedures and asks for the criteria by which they were punished as defamatory between the mid-19th and the late 20th centuries. Sabine Mecking takes up this interest in emotionalized encounters between state and subjects and looks at the significance of emotions in collective action of citizens when confronting state actors in the territorial reform debate in the 1960s and 1970s. An approach of its own is chosen by André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
of Freedom: A Social History of the British State since 1800, Cambridge 2013. The beliefs and practices that Bevir and Rhodes wish to seek out can be informed by a multitude of factors, which in this article we cannot all hope to operationalize. One element, however, is particularly precious for our analysis. Bevir and Rhodes are struck by the ordinariness of administrative life, and foreground office routines, everyday performances, and the mundane nature of many decisions. Insofar as our sources allow, we pay special attention to routine, which we view not so
North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge (MA) 1990. A more recent discussion of institutions can be found in Geoffrey Hodgson, »What are Institutions?«, in: Journal of Economic Issues 40 (2006), p. 1–25. Compared to the transfer of hard technology into developing countries, the transplant of rules is considered more complicated. Yet, it may be even more important. Development scholars regard good institutions (such as non-corrupt administrations or an efficient and independent judiciary) as a fundamental factor in promoting long
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
issues among others. We will return to this issue, as after the Second World War this compartmentalization was considered to have a profound negative effect on government performance and the civil service.
A particularity of Dutch civil service systems in the decentralized unitary state was the emphasis on a job system of recruitment and promotion. To a lesser extent career systems can also be found, although they are exceptions to the rule. Ibidem. Nevertheless their importance should not be underestimated. These exceptions include corps-like structures for the
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
Sciences 7/1 (2017): p. 32, online at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13673-017-0116-3 (1. 8. 2018). in sentiment analysis are Naive Bayes Classification; Vivek Narayanan / Ishan Arora / Arjun Bhatia: »Fast and Accurate Sentiment Classification Using an Enhanced Naive Bayes Model«, in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8206 (2013), pp. 194201, online at: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-642-41278-3_24.pdf (1. 8. 2018). K-Nearest Neighbours; Support Vector Machines, known for performance in word sense disambiguation; Maximum Entropy Classifiers
-bürgerliche Subjektkultur betreibt eine Entemotionalisierung. Die äußere performance soll kein ›Ausdruck‹, keine Expression innerer Regung sein, die unter dem Verdacht des Sozialunverträglichen stehen, sondern ist auf der glatten Fläche der Äußerlichkeit zu reproduzieren. Ebd., S. 416.
Bereits in zeitgenössischen sozialwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen wird über solche Tendenzen berichtet. So konstatiert etwa Charlotte Bühler in einer 1934 erschienenen Untersuchung von Mädchentagebüchern aus drei Generationen, dass die jüngste Generation einen neuen Typ darstelle, der zur »neuen
Bohemia for welfare of homecoming warriors‹, was one way to emphasize the official quality of the board’s function. Repeatedly referencing the military command was another. Considering the letters as a performance of administrative authority, the deliberately formal language appears to be another aspect of those efforts. Despite repeated criticism from within the administration, the circumlocutionary language used by the local board shows how a ›bureaucratic style‹ was emulated in an attempt to stress its official role. Ernst Mayrhofer: Handbuch für den politischen
migration changed, so did the emotional undertones of individuals’ contacts with the state.
This article, based on my auto-ethnographic Leon Anderson: »Analytic Autoethnography«, in: Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 35 (2006), pp. 373–395. account of waiting in line at the Questura, as well as interviews with Italians and migrants to Italy, contributes to our understanding of bureaucracy and emotions by showing how the performance of the line makes real the state’s relationship with outsiders.
Setting, Methods and Datasets
Italy, historically known for sending