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Abstract

Polymer monoliths modified by using nanoparticles (NPs) integrate high NP specific surface area with different monolith surface chemistry and high porosity. As a result, they have extensive applications within different fields, whereas nanomaterial-functionalised porous polymer monoliths have elicited considerable interest from investigators. This study is aimed at fabricating organic polymer-based monoliths from polybutyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monoliths prior to immobilization of gold or silver metal on the pore surface of the monoliths using reducing reagent (extracts of lemon peels). This was intended to denote a sustainable technique of immobilizing nanoparticles that are advantageous over physical and chemical techniques because it is safe in terms of handling, readily available, environmentally friendly, and cheap. Two different methods were used in the study to effectively immobilize nanoparticles on monolithic components. The outcomes showed that soaking the monolith rod in the prepared nano solution directly and placing it within ovens at temperatures of 80°C constituted the most effective method. Characterisation of the fabricated monolith was undertaken using SEM/EDX analysis, UV-vis. spectra analysis, and visual observation. The SEM analysis showed that nanoparticles were extensively immobilised on the surface polymers. Another peak was attained through EDX analysis, thus confirming the Au atom existence at 2.83% alongside another peak that proved the Ag atom existence at 1.92%. The fabricated components were used as sorbents for purifying protein. The ideal performance was achieved using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) immobilised organic monolith that attained a greater pepsin extraction recovery compared to silver nanoparticles (SNPs) immobilised organic monoliths alongside bare organic-based monolith.

Abstract

AHyaluronic acid (HA) is part of the extracellular matrix of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, as well as the synovial fluid, skin, and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. Hyaluronic acid is used in abdominal surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, rhinology; it is usable for the osteoarthritis treatment. The membranes of eggshell are a natural source of hyaluronic acid, collagen, glycosaminoglycan and collagenous proteins. In paper, we tested the possibility of extraction hyaluronic acid from the eggshell membranes by enzymatic hydrolysis. We identified optimal conditions of hydrolysis with trypsin at reaction temperature of 37 °C and pH 8; with pepsin at 40 °C and pH 3, as well as with papain at 60 °C and pH 7.5. The content of hyaluronic acid in samples was determined spectrophotometrically using the carbazole method. The experimental results showed a yield of ~ 4 -4.5 % hyaluronic acid per 1 g of dry eggshell membranes.

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