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leaders: Austria, 1945-2011. Party Politics. 21(4), pp. 930-943. Katz, R. and Mair, P. (1995) Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party. Party Politics. 1(1), pp. 5-28. Katz, R. and Mair, P. (1993) The Evolution of Party Organizations in Europe: The Three Faces of Party Organization. American Review of Politics. 14(4), pp. 593-617. Kitschelt, H. (2000) Citizens, Politicians, and Party Cartelization: Political Representation and State Failure in Post-Industrial Democracies. European Journal of Political Research. 37

. 2012. Lettland: Wirtschaft, Politik, Land und Leute–eine aktuelle, kritische Betrachtung. Saarbrücken: Bloggingbooks. Rose, R. 2001. A diverging Europe. Journal of Democracy , 12(1), pp. 93–106. Rüb, F. W. 2001. Schach dem Parlament! Regierungsysteme und Staatspräsidente in den Demokratisierungsprozessen Osteuropas . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag. Samuels, D.J., Shugart, M.S. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers. How the Separation of Powers Affect Party Organization and Behavior . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sartori, G. 1999. Neither Presidentialism nor

contradistinction between “us” and “them”. This historic challenge, which the societies of the 21 st century are confronted with, comes about, at least and in particular in Europe, in the context of the waning of the great ideologies of the 1900s, which were giving a sense and a horizon, although inadequate, to the new times, to history and politics. It happens in a situation of crisis and in the twilight of the great political organizations (mass political parties, organizations mediating between individuals and the community, etc.) which to some extent were embodying