Maria Trepa, Samuel Bastos, Marta Fontes-Oliveira, Ricardo Costa, André Dias-Frias, André Luz, Vasco Dias, Mário Santos and Severo Torres
Out-of-HospitalCardiacArrest (OHCA) remains one of the most challenging health care problems, despite recent efforts to improve cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the development of evidence-based guidelines and care-bundle systems. The number of patients who achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survive to hospital discharge varies from 7 to 40% depending on the clinical setting [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. The bulk of the available data reporting survival predictors, comes from studies addressing the overall OHCA
1. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2014 Update. Circulation. 2014;129:e28-e292. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000441139.02102.80
2. Berdowski J, Berg RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW. Global incidences of out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest and survival rates: Systematic review of 67 prospective studies. Resuscitation. 2010;81:1479-1487. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.08.006.
3. Fukuda T, Ohashi-Fukuda N, Kondo Y, Sera T, Doi K, Yahagi N. Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital
4. Kozinski M, Pstragowski K, Kubica JM, et al. ACS networkbased implementation of therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of comatose out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest survivors improves clinical outcomes: the first European experience. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013;21:22. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-22.
5. Tubaro M, Danchin N, Goldstein P, et al. Pre-hospital treatment of STEMI patients. A scientific statement of the Working Group Acute Cardiac Care of the European Society of Cardiology. Acute Card Care
Andreea Bărcan, Monica Chițu, Edvin Benedek, Nora Rat, Szilamer Korodi, Mirabela Morariu and Istvan Kovacs
cardiacarrest in patients with cardiogenic shock and acute myocardial infarction. Resuscitation. 2015;87:57-62.
13. Aissaoui N, Puymirat E, Simon T, et al. Long-term outcome in early survivors of cardiogenic shock at the acute stage of myocardial infarction: a landmark analysis from the French registry of Acute ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction(FAST-MI) Registry. Crit Care. 2014;18:516.
14. Demirel F, Rasoul S, Elvan A, et al. Impact of out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest due to ventricular fibrillation in patients with
1. Kern KB. Optimal Treatment of Patients Surviving Out-of- HospitalCardiacArrest. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:597-605.
2. Steg G, James SK, Atar D, et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation The Task Force on the management of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:2569-619.
3. Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of
Ankit Agrawal, Maria Cardinale, Douglas Frenia and Aveek Mukherjee
Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a known, but a rare cause of outofhospitalcardiacarrest (OHCA) leading to the development of non-shockable rhythms such as asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA). The incidence of ICH causing OHCA is unclear but 4-18% of OHCA are caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) [ 1 ]. Fatal cerebellar haemorrhage leading to a cardiac arrest is very rare compared to SAH.
A 77-years old Caucasian male with a history of coronary artery triple bypass surgery, atrial fibrillation and aortic
Andreea Barcan, Istvan Kovacs, Ciprian Blendea, Marius Orzan and Monica Chitu
3. Hasselqvist-Ax I, Riva G, Herlitz J et al. Early Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-HospitalCardiacArrest. New Eng J Med. 2015;372:2307-2315.
4. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2015; pii: ehv320. [Epub ahead of print
Sebastian Kowalski, Adrian Moskal, Karolina Żak-Kowalska and Mariusz Goniewicz
, Nielsen JB, Mortensen RN, et al. Associations between common ECG abnormalities and out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest. British Medical Journal. 2019;6.
5. Gräsner JT, Bossaert L. Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2013;27(3):293–306.
6. Nadolny K, Bujak K, Kucap M, et al. The Silesian Registry of Out-of-HospitalCardiacArrest: Study design and results of a three-month pilot study. Cardiology Journal. Published online: 2018-11-14; DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2018.0140.
7. Keller SP, Halperin
1. Berdowski J, Berg RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW. Global incidences of out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest and survival rates: Systematic review of 67 prospective studies. Resuscitation, 2010; 81(11): 1479-1487.
2. Grasner JT, Lefering R, Koster RW, et al. EuReCa ONE-27 Nations, ONE Europe, ONE Registry: A prospective one month analysis of out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest outcomes in 27 countries in Europe. Resuscitation. 2016;105: 188-195.
3. Nishiyama C, Brown SP, May S, et al. Apples to apples or apples to oranges? International variation
1. Atwood C, Eisenberg MS, Herlitz J, Rea TD. Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospitalcardiacarrest in Europe. Resuscitation 2005; 67:75-80.
2. Nurnberger A, Sterz F, Malzer R, et al. Outofhospitalcardiacarrest in Vienna: Incidence and outcome. Resustitation 2013; 84:42-47.
3. Adrie C, Adib-Conquy M, Laurent I et al. Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest as a “sepsis-like” syndrome. Circulation 2002;106:562-8.
4. Nolan JP, Soar J, Cariou A, Cronberg T