Izhodišča: Nekatere poklicne skupine so zaradi narave dela ranljivejše za razvoj poklicnega stresa, izgorelosti in psihofizičnih zdravstvenih težav. Cilj raziskave je bil opredeliti razlike v doživljanju poklicnega stresa ter proučiti sovpadanje zdravstvenih težav in izgorevanja pri zaposlenih v petih različnih poklicnih skupinah.
Metode: V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 258 udeležencev, zaposlenih v gradbeni, zdravstveni in v predelovalni dejavnosti, razvrščenih v poklicne skupine: delavci v proizvodnji (N=56 (20%), 56% moških), administrativno osebje (N=58 (20%), 18% moških), zdravstveni (N=65 (23%), 16% moških), tehnični (N=51(18%), 87% moških) in vodstveni kadri (N=55 (19%), 68% moških). Udeleženci so izpolnili vprašalnike o sociodemografskih značilnostih, zdravstvenih težavah, stresu na delovnem mestu (OSI) in o izgorelosti (OLBI).
Rezultati: V primerjavi z drugimi poklicnimi profili so delavci v proizvodnji in zdravstveni kadri izražali največjo stopnjo stresa na delovnem mestu. Pri zdravstvenih delavcih so prevladovali viri stresa, povezani z visokimi delovnimi zahtevami in omejeno avtonomnostjo, pri zaposlenih v proizvodnji pa izpostavljenost škodljivim okoljskim dejavnikom. Najpogostejše zdravstvene težave so bile utrujenost pri 56,9% zdravstvenih in 50% proizvodnih delavcev, glavoboli in težave z vidom pri 51,8% proizvodnih delavcih ter bolečine v kostno-mišičnem sistemu pri 48,2% proizvodnih delavcih. Pri zdravstvenih in administrativnih delavcih je bilo največ statistično pomembnih povezav med psihofizičnimi zdravstvenimi težavami in izgorelostjo. Približno desetina zaposlenih v vseh poklicnih skupinah je kazala znake visoke izgorelosti.
Zaključki: Zdravstveni kadri in delavci v proizvodnji so se v primerjavi s preostalimi poklicnimi skupinami izkazali kot ranljivejši za razvoj prekomernega stresa na delovnem mestu. Sopojavljanje zdravstvenih težav in izgorelosti je bilo najizrazitejše pri tehničnih in zdravstvenih kadrih.
Ling He, Yu-Feng Ma, Ke-Sen Zhang and Ya-Xing Wang
negatively related to workplace bullying
Research shows that long-term bullying in the workplace will seriously damage the physical and mental health of individuals, affect their job satisfaction and quality, and eventually lead to their resignation. 43 Compared with other occupationalgroups, nurses who are highly engaged are more likely to suffer workplace bullying. 44 Nurses with low self-esteem are at greater risk of bullying in the workplace, and their degree of depression is significantly higher. 45 Nie et al. 46 found that workplace bullying was significantly
Hussein Ranjbar, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Abbas Heydari, Seyed Reza Mazlom, Laura Scurlock-Evans and Seyedeh Negar Assadi
Truck drivers are one of the largest occupational groups in Iran. Evidence from previous studies suggests that working and living conditions on the road engender many concerns for truck drivers, and their families and communities. This research aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian truck drivers regarding life on the road.
This qualitative study was conducted among Iranian truck drivers working in the inter-state transportation sector. A purposeful sample of 20 truck drivers took part in this research. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed based on qualitative content analysis.
After analysis of the data, three main themes emerged: “Individual impacts related to the hardships of life on the road life”, “Family impacts related to the hardships of road life”, and “Having positive attitude towards work and road”. These findings represent the dimensions of perspectives in the road-life of truck drivers.
Although truck drivers possess positive beliefs about their occupation and life on the road, they and their families face many hardships which should be well understood. They also need support to be better able to solve the road-life concerns they face. This study's findings are useful for occupational programming and in the promotion of health for truck drivers.
Aim. The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia.
Methods. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included.
Results. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education.
Conclusions. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.
Olga Watrakiewicz-Hurko, Jarosława Belowska, Zofia Sienkiewicz, Grażyna Dykowska and Joanna Gotlib
Introduction. Initially, a transplant coordinator assisted in the process of removal and transplantation of organs. The most important rule in the Polish legislation is the Act of July 17th, 2009, amending the Act on removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Professional qualifications of a transplant coordinator are specified by the Regulation of the Minister of Health of December 4th, 2009 on detailed conditions of removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Aim. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator with reference to the current Polish legislation. Material and methods. The study was conducted in April 2013 among 100 selected health professionals (25 physicians, 62 nurses, and 13 persons representing other medical professions) with the use of a questionnaire comprising 42 close-ended simple choice questions and one multiple-choice question. They were referring to various aspects associated with the legal axiology of transplantation, procedure of organ donation, and tasks of a donation coordinator, as well as one open-ended question about the age of respondents. Results. Statistically significant differences between the occupational groups were found in relation to questions about legal and medical aspects. As many as 21 nurses (34%), 26 physicians (92%), and 6 persons representing other medical professions (46%) (p<0.000) provided the correct answer to a question referring to determination of death, and 19 nurses (31%), 7 physicians (28%), and 5 persons representing other medical professions (p<0.021) answered correctly to a question about the key premise to determine brain death. Conclusions. 1. The knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator and the legal provisions concerning brain death determination needs to be supplemented. 2. There is a need of constantly supplementing knowledge of medical personnel about the clinical aspects of transplantation
Chromosome Aberrations in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Croatian Hospital Staff Occupationally Exposed to Low Levels of Ionising Radiation
Medical staff is an occupational group exposed to different agents suspected to induce genetic damage. Among them ionising radiation is the most studied. Cytogenetic analysis of human chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes allows direct detection of mutation in somatic cells. This study investigated the cytogenetic effects of low-level ionising x-radiation in 48-hour peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures sampled from 765 hospital staff occupationally exposed to several agents known or suspected to induce chromosome damage and compared them with 200 control subjects. The exposed subjects were divided in eight (8) groups according to their specialities and job titles. The exposed groups manifested an increase in all types of chromosome aberrations. Acentric fragments were the most frequent chromosome-type aberration. Dicentric chromosomes were statistically significant only in urologists/gynaecologists. Age and smoking significantly influenced the incidence of dicentrics in the exposed groups. The frequency of ring chromosomes was low in all exposed groups (range: 0-2), and none were found in the control group. These findings indicate the importance of periodic medical checkups of hospital staff occupationally exposed to low doses of ionising radiation. The purpose is to create an individual cytogenetic register, where changes could evidence individual risks.
Helena Koprivnikar, Tina Zupanič, Vesna Pucelj and Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš
Uvod: Medicinske sestre lahko s svetovanjem za opustitev kajenja pomembno prispevajo k zmanjšanju rabe tobaka;pri tem jih pomembno ovira njihovo lastno kajenje. Namen raziskave je prikazati kadilske navade te poklicne skupinev Sloveniji.
Metode: Analiza temelji na podatkih iz presečne raziskave na nacionalno reprezentativnem vzorcu medicinskihsester, babic in zdravstvenih tehnikov (spletna anketa). Naključno izbrani člani Zbornice zdravstvene in babiškenege so se odzvali v 51% (N =1.500), o tem, ali kadijo ali ne, pa smo dodatno pridobili podatke še od 218 oseb, kisicer v anketi niso želele sodelovati.
Rezultati: V Sloveniji kadi 20,9% medicinskih sester, babic in zdravstvenih tehnikov, več moških (32,9%) kot žensk(19,6%), več tistih s srednjo stopnjo izobrazbe (25,1%) kot z višjo ali več (12,1%), z nižjo samooceno materialnegastandarda, ki ne živijo s partnerjem in ki nimajo (predšolskih) otrok ter med njihovimi najbližjimi sodelavci, prijateljiin sorodniki kadi nadpovprečen delež oseb. Več kot polovica (52,9%) jih je začela kaditi med šolanjem na srednjihšoli, znaten delež (15,6%) pa tudi v prvih letih zaposlitve. 20% jih navaja, da v ustanovi, v kateri delajo, zaposlenikršijo prepoved kajenja.
Zaključek: Kajenje med medicinskimi sestrami, babicami in zdravstvenimi tehniki je v Sloveniji še vedno prepogostpojav ter lahko znatno vpliva na njihovo poslanstvo in delo na področju promocije nekajenja in pomoči pri opuščanjukajenja. Pomembno je, da za to poklicno skupino okrepimo promocijo nekajenja že od začetka šolanja in organiziramoustrezne programe opuščanja kajenja.
Nataša Dernovšček Hafner, Damjana Miklič Milek and Metoda Dodič Fikfak
staff, especially nurses ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). In addition, MSDs and especially low back pain result in substantial financial costs, in which half of the costs related to absence from work and disability due to MSD can be ascribed to low back pain ( 13 , 16 , 17 ).
Based on the currently available literature, studies of MSDs and especially low back pain in healthcare occupationalgroups other than nurses and midwives are extremely rare ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). Moreover, data on the risk of low back pain by age group are not consistent ( 13 , 17 ).
The aim of this
: Ankara İli’nde İlkokul 1. Sınıf Öğrencilerinde Gözde Kırma Kusurları Sıklığının Tespit Edilmesi Araştırması, 2013 Access date: 21/7/2015. Available from: http://www.sagem.gov.tr/Gozde_Kirma_Kusurlari_Raporu_04_03_2014.pdf
19. McBrien NA, Adams DW. A longitudinal investigation of adultonset and adult-progression of myopia in an occupationalgroup. Refractive and biometric findings. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997;38:321-33.
20. Birch J. Worldwide prevalence of red-green color deficiency. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2012
, Belletti I, Raymond L, Troschel L, Pisani P, Zubiri L, Ascunce N, Gubéran E, Tuyns A, Terracini B, Merletti F Occupation and larynx and hypopharynx cancer: a job-exposure matrix approach in an international case-control study in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14:213-23.
Dietz A, Ramroth H, Urban T, Ahrens W, Becher H Exposure to cement dust, related occupationalgroups and laryngeal cancer risk: results of a population based case-control study. Int J Cancer 2004;108:907-11.