centuries’ long tradition, the Serbs also created a particular pantheon of nationalheroes. Their epiphanies and reincarnations were described by Ivan Čolović in his book titled Politika simbola . According to Čolović, the epiphany and reincarnation of famous, heroic ancestors are not only the common truths of contemporary trite propaganda and political folklore – today, they are used most frequently by people considered to be political, scholarly, and literary authorities. The so-called elite of the nation commonly believes that an out-of-time experience, i.e., the
This article aims to find out how Soviet Estonian documentaries constructed the national discourse in the 1960s, by focusing on the case of the 10-minute documentary Ruhnu (1965) by Andres Sööt. Ruhnu was the first Soviet Estonian documentary released after World War II that romanticised Estonian nationalism. In order to narrate the national ideals considered undesirable by the official ideology, the Soviet Estonian filmmakers often chose to portray characters embedded in the national consciousness as archetypal heroes from pre-Soviet times and the landscapes associated with them. In the desire for past times, national heroes and idealised landscapes were constructed and naturalised in a contemporary context. The article raises the question - what kind of heroes, landscapes and activities were used to construct the national identity and which elements of film language were used? The research method used, critical discourse analysis, allows us to analyse the archetypes created in the documentary and the archetypal landscapes used as a framework for the narrative.
WW2 was undeniably the biggest disaster Warsaw has ever experienced. As a result, the city was both totally destroyed and lost the unique chance of implementing the ambitious plans of pre-war architects and visionaries. According to them, Warsaw was going to become a proud and modern capital of the restored Polish state and should embody the power of the Poles. They focused on the fact of the country’s political independence and on Poland’s nationalheroes which were clearly visible in the plans for the city’s redevelopment ( Muller
, dance, food, love for children, the way of intensive family communication and life, informal primary bonds, all this can become a constitutive element of the new form of “Romahood”. This vision and its actual living do not require a historic version of the origins of the Roma nation, there is no need to build identity on “owning a territory, on won struggles and nationalheroes …” (Excerpt from interview with a pastor).
The first two steps ( emptying and releasing ) seek to negate the convert’s previous way of life and behavior and to break them away from the