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infectious diseases are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide ( Rowell et al., 2012 ; Palm et al., 2014).
The aim of this outline is to review the value of strain typing in public health and in the food industry. Selected examples are used to give an overview on current moleculartyping tools, discussing the potential as well as the shortcomings of diverse techniques in reference to our own work and to present an outlook on upcoming technologies based on WGS.
Identification of microorganisms
Identification denotes the assignment of a microorganism into a
Genomics is a comprehensive study of the whole genome, genetic products, and their interactions. Human genome project has identified around 25,000-30,000 genes, and prevailing presence in tumor pathogenesis, high number of mutations, epigenetic changes, and other gene disorders have been identified. Microarrays technology is used for the analysis of these changes. Postgenome age has begun, and the initial results ensure the improvement of molecular tumor diagnostics and the making of a new taxonomic tumor classification, as well as the improvement, optimization and individualization of anti-tumor therapy. First genomic classifications have been made of leukemias, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and many solid tumors. For example, 4 molecular types of breast carcinoma, three types of diffuse B cell lymphoma, two types of chromophobic renal carcinoma have been identified. Also, gene structures for favorable and unfavorable outcome in leukemia, breast cancer, prostate, bronchi, and other tumors have been identified. It is absolutely possible to diagnose the primary outcome of tumors with which standard tumor position may not be proved using standard diagnostic tools. Pharmacogenomic profiles have ensured better definition of interindividual differences during therapy using antineoplastic drugs and the decrease of their toxicity, as well as individual treatment approach and patient selection with which favorable clinical outcome is expected. Pharmacogenomics has impacted the accelerated development of target drugs, which have showed to be useful in practice. New genomic markers mtDNA, meDNA, and miRNA have been identified, which, with great certainty, help the detection and diagnostics of carcinoma. In the future, functional genomics in clinical oncology provides to gain knowledge about tumor pathogenesis; it will improve diagnostics and prognosis, and open up new therapeutic options.
Gorica Popova, Dean Jankuloski, Benjamin Felix, Katerina Boskovska, Biljana Stojanovska-Dimzovska, Velibor Tasic and Katerina Blagoevska
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49. Stojecki, K., Sroka, J., Cacciò, S. M., Cencek, T., Dutkiewicz, J., Kusyk, D., 2015: Prevalence and moleculartyping of Giardia duodenalis in wildlife from eastern Poland. Folia Parasitol. , 62
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Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years) from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001). There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.
11. Hamnes, I. S, Gjerde, B. K., Robertson, L. J. (2007b). A longitudinal study on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in dogs during their first year of life. Acta Vet Scand. 49, 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-49-22 PMid:17848186; PMCid:PMC2040143
12. Beck, R., Sprong, H., Bata, I., Lucinger, S., Pozio, E., Cacció, S. M. (2011b). Prevalence and moleculartyping of Giardia spp. in captive mammals at the ZOO of Zagreb, Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 175, 40-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.09.026 PMid
M.E. (2014). The prevalence and moleculartyping of Clostridium petfiingetxs in ground beef and sheep meats. J. Verbrauch. Lebensm., 9: 121-128.
Jay J.M, Loessner M.J., Golden D.A. (2005). Editors. Modem Food Microbiology. Springer Science, New York, 7th ed., 790 pp.
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