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problems with employment services for disabled veterans to »personal qualities of the invalids, degenerating [»ausarten«] into the so-called pension psychosis«. N.d.: Bericht, p. 29. For Anthony Giddens, the doctor–patient relationship is one of the paradigmatic situations where personal interaction is able to refresh or undermine trust in abstract expert systems. Anthony Giddens: The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge 1991 , p. 83–92. The positioning as experts claimed by medical and occupational professionals of the Landeskommissionen proved to be extremely
and the Social Sciences. Testing the Limits of Braudel’s Mediterranean, Kirksville, MO, 2002, pp. 191–204, at pp. 196–203. Modern law since the Age of Enlightenment, on the other hand, demonstrated abstinence from emotions and ›dethematized‹ them. Thus, as far as the historical development of modernity is concerned, i.e. the last 200 years, the basic statements of the current discussion can – with all due caution – also be made applicable.
The second objection concerns a fundamental methodological problem. Given that legal discussions always have a normative
Deportations of Sojourners in Israel«, in: International Labor and Working-Class History 79 (2011), pp. 81–102. and the way in which migrants are blamed by the natives for abysmal circumstances foisted upon them by the state, David Bacon: Illegal People. How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants, Boston 2009. evidences the performative realism Uli Linke: »Contact Zones. Rethinking the Sensual Life of the State«, in: Anthropological Theory 6 (2006), pp. 205–225. of the state’s relationship with ›others‹. Jock Young: The Vertigo of Late Modernity
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
affected the ways in which legal and historical scholarship came to describe the workings of local and provincial government: before 1848 the power of tradition passed down from the Old Regime was said to prevail, whereas afterwards the generally accepted narrative became that the path to modernity had definitively set in. See for example Jacques Oppenheim: Het Nederlandsch gemeenterecht, Groningen 1895; Hendrik Jan van Leeuwen: De provinciale wet, Heusden 1911. We argue that the traditionalist and the reformist interpretation are both misleading, since they are driven
The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
. Ottoman modernity was indeed not merely synonymous with standardization, homogenization and uniformity, contrary to what the French consuls were looking for, projecting their own model onto the Ottoman system. It also aimed to maintain, by adapting them, the imperial traditions and, in particular, the religious specificity of the Empire. Roderic H. Davison: »Ottoman Public Relations in the Nineteenth Century: How the Sublime Porte Tried to Influence European Public Opinion«, in: Daniel Panzac (ed.): Histoire économique et sociale de ľEmpire ottoman et de la Turquie
hierarchy were thus closely interwoven in his view. Ultimately, he positioned himself in a shared emotional situation with public officials: The same kind of »deep acting« (Arlie Hochschild) that was required of citizens should also be expected from them. On citizens as subjects of administrative processes, cf. Balázs Brunczel: Disillusioning Modernity. Niklas Luhmann’s Social and Political Theory, Frankfurt am Main 2010, p. 146; Walter Leiser: Das demokratische Reich. Reichsidee und Volksherrschaft in Geschichte und Recht, Berlin 2004, p. 514. The law of 1925 and the