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Naliwajek-Mazurek, K. (2013). Paweł Szymański and the Multiple Narrative in Music. In: Eva Mantzourani (Ed.), Polish Music since 1945, Kraków: Musica Iagellonica, pp. 129-139.
Naliwajek-Mazurek, K. (2014). Qudsja Zaher - traktat na styku archeologii, historii i krytyki współczesności [Qudsja Zaher - A Treatise on Archeology, History and Criticism of Modernity], Res Facta Nova. No. 15, pp. 51-69.
Nattiez, J.-J. (1981). Paroles d’informateurs et propos de
The two-part article Time in Film (Part I Cinematograph and Modernity . Part II Trans- formation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author's comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film's narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the specta-tor), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
The essential subject of Part I (Cinematograph and Modernity') of the article presented in this volume is the mysterious character of the film recording of time which stems from the dialectics of continuity and discontinuity. The discourse begins by recalling two classic theories defining film as a temporal art: Roman Ingarden's phenomenological theory and Jan Mukarovsky's semiotic theory. Both the theories define the layered character of a film work and its temporal span, which makes the theories similar. For Ingarden, how- ever the time of a film work is first of all associated with the temporality of the perceiving subject, while Mukarovsky argues that the most significant aspect of film tune is one connected with the temporal span of the work as a sign. The two approaches stem from two different conceptions and cognitive possibilities, with which we also deal in the case of reception of a film: the possibility of direct inspection or symbolic (sign) representation.
The article then discusses the ‘ linking’' between the creation of film visibility, motion and time, as well as the mam paradox of the film recording of time. i.e. the phenomenon of creating an illusion of continuity of motion (and time) with the use of motionless pictures (movie camera and projection apparaftis). This paradox is referred, inter alia, to the philosophical conceptions advanced by Henri Bergson, who developed his own reflection on the continuity of time, motion, and specificity of human perception. Bergson's criti- cism of modern concepts of time as linear and divisible, which originated from empirical and rational tendencies of the epoch, found its reference in the possibilities provided by the mechanism of action of the cinematograph right after it was invented.
The paper then discusses expectations linked with the possibilities observ ed in the mechanical way of recording reality’ and time in the early silent cinema films (the so-called cinema of attraction). In their case, the duality of film time stemmed from the paradoxical properties provided by cinematographic reproduction and its impact on the spectator. On the one hand, it manifested a tendency to standardize and systematize phenomena and time, while on the other hand, the sphere of indeterminacy or even unawareness made itself felt. This part of die article is based on studies by Mary Ann Doane, who refers inter alia to the conceptions of Walter Benjamin. Sigmund Freud, and to Étienne-Jules Mareys photography experiments. According to M. A. Doane. the early cinema (Edison, Lumiere brothers, and Melies) was characterized by two opposing tendencies: a characteristic tendency of modernity' to record and organize the flow of present time (standardization) and at the same time a fascination with unpredictable phenomena (novelty). It was only at the next stage of cinema that temporal unpredictability- was adjusted by means of narrative patterns, which made it possible to include the viewer’s attention in the time of the plot being told.
Ten years after he passed away, Aurel Stroe remains one of the most valuable composers that Romania has offered to the world in the post-Enescu era. Belonging to an area of novelty and extreme originality of composition and musical thinking, Aurel Stroe was similarly neither understood nor appreciated enough (especially at home) and only to limited extent sung and scheduled within symphonic concerts and chamber music. But abroad, Aurel Stroe remains one of the most performed Romanian composers of modern music. Ten years after his passing away, we will attempt to create an overall view of his musical creations, and the inheritance of his composition thinking.
Oskar Sosnowski (1880-1939) was one of the most outstanding architects active in Poland in the first half of the 20th century. He was also well-known for his artistic and scientific achievements and for his organizing work. He was the founder and Head of the Department of Polish Architecture at Warsaw Technical University’s Faculty of Architecture. His life was connected with Warsaw, where he finished school and then graduated from the Architectural and Construction Faculty at the Polytechnic Institute, started a family, and worked professionally. From 1906 he took part in architectural competi- tions. He gained successes (distinctions and awards) in competitions to design the manor house in at Opinogóra (1908). the Immaculate Conception of Holy Virgin Mary church in Grójecka street in Warsaw (1909) and the church at Orłów Murowany (1910). Sosnowski’s architectural achievements comprise over 50 items: designs and realizations, and. additionally, a series of fantasy drawings thematically related to architecture. The over- whelming majority of Sosnowski’s attainments were designs of contemporary churches. He won particular renown for the design of St. Roch church in Białystok, in which he drew from historical forms combined with a modem, reinforced concrete structure. Sosnowski designed a total of 17 churches.
One of them, still without a reliable monograph, is St. Michael the Archangel church in Lublin. Efforts to have the church built began in 1900. The Ministry of Internal Affairs issued its consent in 1906. However, first construction work began almost 30 years later. Previously, it was held back by the outbreak of World War I. disputes over the location of the church, and by the lack of sufficient funds. Meanwhile, the concept of the shape of the planned church also changed. The initial intention was that its form should resemble the appearance of Lublin’s former parish church, the Gothic St. Michael's church pulled down in 1856 because it was in ruin. Finally, a decision was made to choose the modernist church designed by Sosnowski. Its construction begun in 1930 lasted until 1946. while interior decoration works were also earned out in the subsequent years.
The St. Michael the Archangel church is a monumental brick and ferroconcrete structure. the main elements of its mass are: the bulk of the three-aisle basilica, the transept with distinctly protruding lateral arms, the presbytery as high as the central nave, and the four-sided bell tower over the intersection of the aisles. In the bulk and decorations of the St. Michael the Archangel church many historicizing elements and borrowings from Sosnowski's earlier architectural works can be distinguished. The whole should be seen as a highly successful combination of the motifs of historicizing architecture with modernity
The two-part article Time in Film (Part I. Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film’s narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
Part two of the article (Przemiana kinematografu w kino [The Transformation of cinematograph into cinema) discusses the issues concerning film time from the perspective of the film-spectator relationship. The study also presents the problems of narrative time and the influence that narrative time exerts on the spectator’s mental sphere. According to Edgar Morin, cinema above all reflects man’s mental links with the world. A great advantage of cinema is the ability to make the past the present and, as it were, to spatialize time. The feature film is capable of creating surprising transformations of time, thereby approximating the human, subjective sense of time, which is fully revealed during sleep. The similarity between film and dream was also the subject of interesting discussions by the Polish film critic Konrad Eberhardt. In his book Film jest snem [Film is dream] he presents his reflections on the links between film and dream and analyses film oneirism using the examples of selected works by the most eminent directors. In contrast, Étienne Souriau, a French aesthetician, made a fundamental distinction between two basic levels of film time: filmophanic presentation (duration of a film show) and the film world (diegetic time). He also pointed out that time manipulations largely enable the rise of new film reality, and significantly influence the audience’s emotions. The article then discusses the differing interpretations of film time proposed by the French linguists Christian Metz and Roland Barthes, and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau- Ponty. The study concludes with an extensive presentation of the film time theory developed the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.
The article gives a detailed account of his concept of the history of cinema, which is based on the analysis of transformations of narrative time forms. Its two extreme poles are “cinema: movement-image” and “cinema: time-image”. Deuleze argues that the contemporary model of “cinema: movement-image”, exemplified by works e.g. of Alaine Resnais, the French New Wave, Orson Welles, Federico Fellini, and others, evokes mental time: the time of remembrance, mental images, hallucinations, and dreams. According to Deleuze, films create virtual reality, highly approximating the one which another French philosopher Henri Bergson called “pure consciousness” (duration).
Mieczysława Karłowicz’s literary output can be divided into autonomous (i.e. functioning independently) and non-autonomous (i.e. subordinated to particular musical works as their conceptual and expressive basis). The first group covers six articles about the Tatras and seven minor notes published in the tourist press in 1895-1909, reviews and reports from the concert life in Berlin of 1896, 1897, and 1905; four polemical- -journalistic articles concerning musical life in Warsaw, and four musicological/documentation publications, its culmination being apparently a humorous-grotesque story Orfeum Warszawskie w roku 1910 [Warsaw Orpheum in 1910]. Two articles should be added, which are devoted to outstanding Berlin music teachers who contributed to Polish culture (a remembrance of H. Urban and the text devoted to Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen), as well as reviews of the singing handbooks authored by Teofil Kowalski and Feliks Konopasek. The non-autonomous publications comprise literary programs: symphonic prologue Bianka z Moleny [Bianca of Molena], Symphony E-minor Odrodzenie [Rebirth] and a symphonic poem Powracaja̧ce fale [The Returning waves]. The program of the poem Stanisław i Anna Oświecimowie was published after the composer’s death in 1912, while the program of Smutna opowieść [A Sad tale] was published in the form of an impression from the press interview.
Karłowicz’s literary output is in a way an aesthetic “complement” to his musical achievements: it presents these characteristics of the composer’s complex personality that were not revealed in music, or, as for example his sense of humor, were shown only marginally. Owing to the literary program of his musical poems we know that Karłowicz utilized music to express sublime themes oscillating on the verge of philosophical reflections, and truths about the depths of human psyche, which were at the same time the truths about himself: about the sphere of his most personal experience, emotions, reflections and dreams. This range of themes and motifs, metaphors and literary expressions that we meet in the verbal comments to the symphonic poems, fully expresses the neo-romantic (Young-Poland-trend) character of Karłowicz’s non-autonomous literary creations. The scope of influence of Polish literary modernism on the composer is specific and incomplete at the same time: the dominant theme area is characteristic of the poetry of the then most popular representative of neo-romantic (Young-Poland) literature - Kazimierz Przerwa Tetmajer. Selected already in Karłowicz’s song period and suited to his imagination, the Tetmajer themes and motifs would be continued in his mature symphonic creations. In contrast, in his autonomous literary creations Karłowicz was able to express the traits of his personality that go, as it were, “outside” the private sphere” of his dreams, recollections, and emotions.. That is why in this part of literary creations the influence of neo-romantic aesthetics diminishes, being replaced by devices more characteristic of Polish positivism. Consequently, in his articles about the Tatras, relationships with Tetmajer’s rhetoric appear only in passages containing descriptions of nature and at the moments of personal reflections, particularly philosophical ones. Orfeum Warszawskie, anticipating the grotesque and satirical tendencies as well as prophetic, disturbing literary visions characteristic of the interwar period (in particular of S. I. Witkiewicz), demonstrates the aspects of Karłowicz’s personality that were reflected only in some of his letters.
Karłowicz’s whole literary output confirms certain characteristic features of his composing style and his creative aesthetics. His works manifest his excellent sense of form as a whole, the ability to subordinate detail to the general dramatic outline, or the use of distinctive contrasts. Karłowicz’s musical and literary discourse is lively, devoid of longeurs and hesitations, at the same time being clear and lucid. Moreover, reviews, journey reports, and Orfeum Warszawskie give us an interesting insight in the composer’s musical preferences, his attitude towards tradition, and his understanding of modernity in music.
arhid. dr. Sebastian Barbu-Bucur [“Always Invincible!” An Interview with Archdeacon Ph.D. Sebastian Barbu-Bucur]. Tabor. Revistă lunară de cultură şi spiritualitate românească, 1 , 77-84. Cluj-Napoca: Mitropolia Clujului, Albei, Crişanei şi Maramureşului.
Chircev, E. (2010b). The Byzantine Musical Tradition at Present Times. St. John the New from Neamţ by Archd. Ph.D. Sebastian Barbu-Bucur. In the journal Arta. (Arte audiovizuale) (pp. 8-13). Chișinău: Elam Poligraf.
Chircev, E. (2012). Tradition and Modernity in Current Psaltic Music. Vespers Hymns by
The issue of artistic education is not new, it is still concerned and concerned by many specialists. The newities emerged and imposed from time to time in the evolution of culture and education were and are determined by the scientific and artistic achievements, the enrichment of the possibilities of knowledge and valorization of the experiences and achievements, both from the field of artistic didactics, as well as from musical creation and interpretative art. The perspectives, especially in the last half century, aimed at increasing the knowledge of the child’s physical and mental peculiarities, his ability to form audiences, visions and chinestecs, and the fundamental aims pursued by specialists - teachers and researchers - have been and have continued to improve the contributions of music, literature and dance to the aesthetic and ethical education of children, to developing their sensitivity and intelligence, in other words, to the formation and harmonious development of the children’s personality. From the perspective of knowing and preserving the national identity, in the non-formal educational system existing in Romania, there are musical-literarychoreographic circles with folkloric specifics organized in the Children’s Clubs and Palaces. Also, through school curriculum (CDS), there are initiatives by music education teachers to capitalize on music-literary-choreographic folklore through new disciplines, giving pupils the knowledge of local, regional and national traditions.