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Michał Lenartowicz, Emanuele Isidori and Barbara Maussier
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The comparative, differential phenomenology of play and games has a critical political point. A mainstream discourse identifies – more or less – sport with play and game and describes sport as just a modernized extension of play or as a universal phenomenon that has existed since the Stone Age or the ancient Greek Olympics. This may be problematical, as there was no sport before industrial modernity. Before 1800, people were involved in a richness of play and games, competitions, festivities, and dances, which to large extent have disappeared or were marginalized, suppressed, and replaced by sport. The established rhetoric of “ancient Greek sport”, “medieval tournament sport”, etc., can be questioned.
Configurational analysis as a procedure of differential phenomenology can help in analyzing sport as a specific modern game which produces objectified results through bodily movement. This analysis casts light not only on the phenomenon of sport itself, but also on the methodological and epistemological challenge of studying play, movement, and body culture.
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4. Morgan A, Davies M
bound as proposed by Lee (1996) which constituted a profound re- conceptualization of the term, with global implications. Of note was that this reconceptualization had arisen as a consequence of the emergence of eating disorders where previously they were thought not to exist i.e. the developing world, the so called under- represented countries . Specifically that eating disorders were bound to the culture of modernity which Lee (1996) defined and will be elucidated later in this paper.
Having completed specialist training in 1992 I was appointed as a
When reading the masterpiece about “The Agon Motif” by John W. Loy and W. Robert Morford (2019), I was struck by their recurrent reference to the pursuit of honor in agonal sport contests, as it has become common sense to replace honor with dignity in modernity. I take the German social-philosopher Axel Honneth (1995) as a prime example of spelling out the replacement of honor with dignity in what he names “the struggle for recognition”. In a historical perspective, however, it looks like, that dignity can be understood as a distribution of honor rather than as an oppositional concept of honor. Recognition should not only be conceptualized at the categorical level, but also understood in terms of ‘comparative recognition’, which sorts members of a group into an intra-group hierarchy based on their relative merits and, thereby, pave the way for self-esteem (Mark, 2014). Furthermore, Honneth (2008) develops his concept of recognition to a two-level one by including a primordial recognition in terms of mimesis based upon his former concept of basic self-confidence. It is a kind of elementary responsiveness, which always and necessarily contains an element of involuntary openness or devotedness in the bodily-affective sphere. Therefore, I suggest taking mimesis as the precondition of honor into account and understanding dignity as a distribution of honor in the institution of modern sport.
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The main purpose of detention in a modern, humanitarian prison system is to bring the prisoners to live in a free society in a manner consistent with applicable laws and morals. The indicators of modernity are also ways and means by which attempts are made to achieve this goal. In many European and non-European prisons, physical culture achievements are commonly used in working with prisoners. They organize programmed resocialization activities for prisoners with a substantial share of physical education and recreational free time activities. Sometimes, prisoners are offered the chance to take their own initiatives to encourage healthy lifestyles.
In addition to teaching, during which the prisoners participate in physical activity, they use interaction with sports authorities in the form of discussion meetings between prisoners and athletes.
Such meetings are also organized at the House of Detention in Inowrocław, which operates a half-open unit for the convicts. These meetings are the part of the activities of “Paragraph”, the Olympian club (based at the Inowrocław prison) subject to the Polish Olympic Committee.
The author participated in several such meetings as an invited guest or co-organizer and observed that they are primarily of a recollective character. But it was hard to find in them specific, praxeologically structured and conceptually implemented resocialization interactions. Teleological vagueness initiated the search for the real purpose of these meetings by means of observation. The meetings clearly appeared to have more of an ad hoc (referring to the conditions in prison) than a prospective character (undertaken with a view to the period after release). These findings were the inspiration for the development of the main objectives of a two-step strategy of a change in scenarios of the meetings between the convicts and athletes, the ultimate goal of which was to give them the characteristics of programmed rehabilitation. They defined the procedure for involving sportsmen to accomplish the objectives in the area of mental health and social development and made the selection and development of tools to measure the effects of these interactions.
The article is a report on research designed to determine differences in perception of health, as well as on conducting health activities among those inmates who participated in the program “Active today, different tomorrow” and those who did not participate in it. The study involved 67 penitentiary recidivists. Two questionnaires by Siegfried Juczyński were used: the List of Health Criteria and Health Behaviour Inventory. The results gave the possibility to formulate important methodological implications for practitioners who involve prominent sportsmen in resocialization. They also proved useful in efforts to create another resocialization program that uses sports activity in resocialization.
Heideggerian analysis of skydiving. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37, 29-46.
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