The article explores the possibility of comprehending natural law, together with an alternative to the Schmittean political, through an inquiry into the layers of professional philosophy with a special focus on epistemology and analytic philosophy. The starting point of the research is the controversy surrounding the ideas of Carl Schmitt, in which it is unclear what lies at the origin of law and the political - sovereign decision or the situation (Part I)? The latter possibility directs the inquiry to the conceptual field related to natural law and epistemology. Proceeding via both diachronic and synchronic perspectives, the inquiry further analyses what has happened to natural law in modernity, and what its current status is, theorizing both streams of inquiry under the concept of political exile (Part II). The Schmittean political happens to be very much at home in this context, opening up the coherent ideological framework that may be called modern political ontology, which at first appears to camouflage Schmittean antagonistic political praxis (Part III). However, through inquiry into ideas mostly attributable to analytic philosophy (or philosophy of language), this ontology is also shown to function as an ‘anti-onto’-logy - that is, as a direct (i.e. open, not hidden) ideological basis for modern political praxis. The analysis here also discloses the rivalry inside professional philosophy in relation to ‘anti-onto’-logy, the latter finding its disciplinary origin(s) in language itself. It shows that at the level of professional philosophy there is a general trend that could be helpful in the attempt to revive natural law (Part IV).
Modernity. London: Polity Press, 2000.
8. Bauman, Zygmunt. Vartojamas gyvenimas (Consuming life). Vilnius: Apostrofa, 2011.
9. Beck, Ulrich. “Living in the World Risk Society.” Economy and Society Vol. 35, No. 3 (2006): 329-345.
10. Beck, Ulrich. “The Politics of Risk Society”: 9-22. In: J. Franklin, ed. The Politics of Risk Society. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998.
11. Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. New Delhi: Sage, 1992.
12. Buzar, Stefan. Energy Poverty in Eastern Europe
1. Amnesty International. “Belarus: What Is Not Permitted Is Prohibited: Silencing Civil Society in Belarus” (May 15, 2013): 1–5 // https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/12000/eur490062013en.pdf .
2. Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large. Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Vol. 1. Public Worlds . Minneapolis-London: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
3. Chulitskaya, Tatsiana. “Belarusian NGOs and the West: A Way Forward.” Bell BelarusInfo Letter (2013).
4. Civil Society. Dialogue for Progress. Belarus Civil
Auer, Astrid, Christoph Demmke, and Robert Polet. Civil Services in the Europe of Fifteen: Current Situation and Prospect . Maastricht: EIPA, 1994.
Baločkaitė, Rasa, and Leonardas Rinkevičius. "Sovietinės modernybės virsmas: nuo Černobylio ir Ignalinos iki Žaliųjų judėjimo ir Sąjūdžio (The transformation of Soviet modernity: from Chernobyl and Ignalina to the Green Movement and Sąjūdis)." Sociologija, Mintis ir veiksmas No. 2 (2008): 20-40.
Bhatta, Gambhir. "Post
Justice Vol. 12, No. 4 (2012): 433-458.
18. Flynn, Norman. Public Sector Management . Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.
19. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish . New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
20. Foucault, Michel. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the College de France 1977-1978 . Macmillan, 2009.
21. Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality . Volume 1. London: Penguin, 1998.
22. France, Alan, and Paul Wiles. “Dangerous Futures: Social Exclusion and Youth Work in Late Modernity.” Social Policy and Administration Vol. 31
system ( Kristjánsson 2016 ).
The idea of partial universal basic income surfaces at the eve of the medieval period and the dawn of modernity. The idea evolves until the middle of the 20 th century without being implemented in its pure form at a grand scale anywhere.
3 Adjusting the tax system to openness
The late 1960s and through to the early 1980s was a period of profound changes in Iceland and elsewhere. In Iceland, the lucrative herring fisheries collapsed, herring catches in 1969 only amount to 7% of catches before 1966 ( Hagstofa Íslands 2019a ,b). Lack
-02-13-hardtnegrien. html (last visited Jan. 7, 2016). Killaly thinks the old mole is dead, frozen in the icy wastelands of modernity.
When Killaly in his iceberg model posits worldviews as the base, he adopts an idealist approach rather than a materialist one to understanding the world. Ideas come from, and reflect, a material base. As Marx wrote: “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.” K ARL M ARX , Preface to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, available