-European Jewry: he was the founder and first president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of New York, whose perspective was to offer a balance between tradition and modernity in a conservative approach. In conclusion, I shall deal with these two last points: the end of the two schools and their influence on American Judaism.
The founding of the institutes: the Jewish and non-Jewish context
The Breslau Seminary—as the historians of German Judaism of the nineteenth century tell us Among the last fruits of the investigation on the Breslau Seminary I remind: Michael Meyer
This special section examines Isaac Wetzlar‘s Love Letter, a Yiddish proposal for the improvement of Jewish society, written in 1748/49 in Northern Germany. The articles concentrate on the links between Libes briv and the contours of German Pietism in order to initiate exploration of the complex relationship between Central European Judaism and eighteenth-century Pietism. This largely unrecognized arena of Jewish-Christian encounter is presented as a significant factor in a century that promoted modernity
as part of hegemonic Western historical narrative, a political doctrine, legitimized by an epistemological category of the secular that preceded the ideal of secularization. Talal Asad, Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003). See the insightful critical analysis of the recent studies on secularization by Jacques Berlinerblau, “Crisis in Secular Studies,” Chronicle of Higher Education , September 10, 2014.
These wide-ranging, politically charged, and provocative views are part of much longer debate
Guide and the Kuzari gave rise to two rivalling camps within Jewish intellectual history, and the antagonism expressed through those two works continued in a certain sense far into modernity. The division is usually described as the difference between particularism and universalism in approaching the basic tenets of Judaism, but in fact it goes far beyond that paradigm. While, for the followers of Halevi, the revelation of the Torah at Mount Sinai was a historical fact, a singular supernatural event that not only secured the authority of Jewish law but in fact
://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/tra.2016.14.issue-1/tra-2016-0004/tra-2016-0004.pdf ). and Irene Kajon (Rome) Nils Roemer, Sacred Torrents in Modernity: German Jewish Philosophers and the Legacy of Secularization, in: Transversal 14:1 (2016), pp. 35-44 ( https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/tra.2016.14.issue-1/tra-2016-0005/tra-2016-0005.pdf ). , the texts that are being presented here emerged out of an international conference that took place in Oxford in July 2013. The symposium, organized in the memory of late Francesca Yardenit Albertini (1974-2011) and in cooperation with the European
the centre of scholarly interest during the past decades. Important studies: Mordechai Breuer, Modernity Within Tradition: The Social History of Orthodox Jewry in Imperial Germany , New York 1992; Matthias Morgenstern, Von Frankfurt nach Jerusalem. Isaac Breuer und die Geschichte des „Austrittsstreits” in der deutsch-jüdischen Orthodoxie , Tübingen 1995; Jacob Katz, A House Divided. Orthodoxy and Schism in Nineteenth-Century Central European Jewry , Hanover, NH, 1998; Michael A. Meyer, Response to Modernity. A History of the Reform Movement in Judaism , New York
) The Zionist Idea. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.
Herzl, T. (1896) The Jewish State. Online at: http://www.MidEastweb.org
Hess, J.M. (2002) Germans, Jews and the claims of modernity. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hirsch, D, (2009) Zionist eugenics, mixed marriage, and the creation of a ‘new Jewish type. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15(3):592-609.
Horkheimer, M. and T. Adorno (2002) Dialectic of Enlightenment. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
hitherto prevented schism were no longer at work, yet an irrational fear of division subsisted and, according to Löw’s anonymous polemic, this fear was the major obstacle that prevented Hungarian Jewry from coping with the needs of modernity. Caricaturing Meisel’s approach, Löw insists upon the idea that the cleavage cannot be talked away as in the Biblical verse “They dress the wound of my people as though it were not serious. ‘Peace, peace,’ they say when there is no peace” (Jeremiah 6:14 NIV).
Löw compares “the ardent battle between Orthodox and Reformers” Löw, Die
Context: The Turn to History in Modern Judaism (Brandeis University 1994) pp. 255–265; Michael Meyer, Response to Modernity (New York 1988), pp. 84-89, 105-107; Andreas Brämer, Rabbiner Zacharias Frankel: Wissenschaft des Judentums und Konservative Reform im 19 Jahrundert , Hildesheim 2000.
Frankel held that the core of the Jewish religion was “positive,” that is, revealed, and, therefore, not subject to rational criticism or change. However, the oral law developed within history, and its authority lay in the collective will of average religious Jews: “There is a
’s collective will. As in the period following Frankel’s departure from the rabbinical conference in Frankfurt in 1845, However, the opposition from the Orthodox was so great that, after repeated postponements, Frankel was forced to abandon the earlier planned conference entirely. See references in Michael A. Meyer, Response to Modernity: A History of the Reform Movement in Judaism (New York, 1988), 429 note 150; also Andreas Brämer, “The Dilemmas of Moderate Reform. Some Reflections on the Development of Conservative Judaism in Germany 1840–1880,” Jewish Studies