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Development of High Technologies as an Indicator of Modern Industry in the Eu
The article tries to classify the EU states in terms of the advancement of structural changes in their industries on the basis of the increase in the share of advanced technologies in total industrial production, labour, added value, and surplus. In the times of the knowledge-based economy the ability to produce high-tech goods, the demand for which is growing much faster than for traditional goods, indicates the level of modernity of industry.
The dynamic growth of the demand for knowledge-based high-tech goods results from the evolution of consumer habits, which are predominantly driven by educated and rich societies who demand that their sophisticated needs met. An important role in stimulating this demand is played by modern media as they instantly deliver information on the latest technical developments and are very efficient in transferring patterns of consumerism. The ability to adapt the structure of production to the needs of the market is crucial in defining a state's position in the international exchange of goods. This is due to the fact that the national technology is tightly interwoven with export abilities.
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As a consequence of its long history of more than 250 years, the Douro Demarcated Region (NE Portugal) boasts a distinct cultural landscape typified by terraces filled with the regional variety of grapevine – it is a region where famous wines are produced, in particular Port wine. Nevertheless, especially after the 1980s, the need to cover labour shortages and increase productivity led to a gradual change in the landscape, and today the traditional terraces are mixed with new types of vineyards, such as the “vinha ao alto” (vertical vines) and “vinha em patamares” (vines on terraces). Against this backdrop, and with a view to preserving the landscape in a sustainable and multifunctional way, UNESCO awarded the region the “Evolving Living Landscape, World Heritage” award. In this article we combine extensive documentary research with productive field work in order to question the relationship between the need to preserve an exceptional, cultural landscape and the need for regional sustainability in this World Heritage site.
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Constructing and Crossing Boundaries in a New (?) Europe
During the last two decades, discourses over the transition process shifted toward a theoretical diversity and a deeper understanding of ‘how modernity was reworked in postsocialist context’. It was widely argued that changing social relations were shaped not only by norms and institutions of Neoliberal capitalism, but also by established networks, institutional and regulatory structures and actors that/who gave diverse responses to the profound and thorough transformation of the society. This paper aims at understanding how geopolitical discourses over the Balkan and its place in the ‘new Europe’ shaped social relations and produced daily practices nested into those webs, through the perception and interpretations of post-socialist transformation by Hungarian migrants who left the war-hit Yugoslavia.
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