“modernity” (or of how the political, social, cultural, technological, or economic relations were organized in the west, ensuring its domination over the rest of the world [cf Malik 2017 : 56; Mommsen 1987 : 38]). It required quite a leap of faith to propose that Arabic could be French’s match. But such faith was not in short supply, as proposers of the idea also saw Arabic as the language of god, thus the world’s first-ever language conferred on humanity directly from the heavens. From this perspective, French had to be inferior to the holy language of the Quran
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recognized status equality” ( Bauman, 2017 , p. 140). The postsecular understanding of religious and secular mutuality is exactly about this.
Bauman’s appreciation for Pope Francis could be confirmed by the sociologist Michele Dillon in the book Postsecular Catholicism: Relevance and Renewal in which the author stated that: “The Catholic Church has many resources that well match the postsecular turn” ( Dillon, 2018 , p. 165). Dillon made reference to Habermas’ concept of “contrite modernity,” which she applied also to the Catholic Church. And in the light of the recent
What Comes after Secularization – The Czech Case Study
Secularization was understood in European modernity as a process of emancipation from religion, in which religious thinking, practices, and institutions lost social significance. The turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries brought new developments within this paradigm (see Martin 2005 , Davie 1999 ). Thus, we now speak about different modes of the return of religion and spirituality into the public space and about its coexistence with what of the secularization paradigm is still alive.
the sacralization Joas describes. If they achieve the role of a secular formatting of the sacred, the ideals of human rights may profit from a more modest and pragmatic approach to their history, their genealogy, and their future influence.
Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Asad Talal. 2003 Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity Stanford, CA Stanford University Press
Asad, Talal. 2015. “Reflections on Violence, Law, and
the next of kin, especially of the elderly, is a telling example in this respect. In comparison, the formal and procedural ethics of modernity has proven incapable to substitute the motivational and translational potential of these traditions so that the norms of the former risk to remain empty phrases. This is illustrated by the fact the principles of no-harm and self-determination, being the (almost) universally accepted rules for moral decision-making in modern societies, lose a lot of their plausibility when applied to concrete moral dilemmas ( Dülmer 2014 , 257
occupy past time, they appropriate the materializations of that era. Visitors of this flea market could be representatives of flaneurism .
Flaneurism according to Buck-Morss (1986) is a “consumerist mode of being in the world”. In this sense, spending time at the flea market corresponds to the concept of flaneurism as the interaction with the surroundings also involves trading relations even if one follows the rule of flaneur: “look but do not touch”.
However, if the flaneur is interested in modernity itself, the flea market visitor observes the relationship
Zafiropoulou Maria and Papachristopoulos Konstantinos
The use of new communications technologies and social media, in Greece, during the time of crisis, has led to the development of numerous online informal Civil Society Networks (CSNs) (i.e. networking-building platforms, self - organized groups in Facebook, forums, exchange platforms) proposing a rethinking of the status quo of formal civil organizations. This research, utilizing the methodology of discourse analysis, aims at summarizing the rise of these networks in Greece that incorporates both solidarity initiatives and autonomous political/economic spaces and identify the indicative predictive factors of their survival and growth. Some basic conclusions that have been drawn through this research is that alternative online networks can be proven as indicative sign of the social dynamism of a given period but in order to be resilient and sustainable they should develop focal points of physical reference, pursue national representation, focus mainly on monothematic goods/services and cultivate, in several cases, links with relevant social movements and local or national NGOs. A general induction through this research is that a CSN, during this current crisis, stands between two classical models of reference in a society seeking modernity and flexibility and can be considered as a proposed type of effective experimentation and mobilization that can pursue common social goals and serve needs of deprived people. Some issues that still remain underexplored and need further elaboration are social and political identity of participants, the potential links with local, national and international communities, the functional balance between structure and flexibility as well as the efficient distribution of energy between solidarity and protest.
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