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Comparison of Reduction Systems of Harmful Substances into the Atmosphere in Accordance to Requirements of IMO Tier III

Abstract

Degradation of the environment is nowadays believed to be the most alarming problem that needs to be solved. Global warming and environmental pollution are predicted to cause a catastrophic chain reaction leading to species extinction, mass emigration due to rising sea levels and global crisis. The only solution suggested by international organizations is the immediate reduction of greenhouse gases and other harmful substances. Marine transportation harmful substances into the atmosphere are recognized to be a significant source of global atmospheric pollution. Despite the high efficiency of marine diesel engines, their impact on the environment is considerable. Due to environmentally friendly policies, modern engines concerns about not only efficiency but also mainly about s aspects. This article analyses and compares marine s exhaust gases reduction methods. Especially the most harmful substances emitted by ships were taken into consideration. The article presents the most crucial law regulations of harmful substances to the atmosphere, pointing at actual and possible future implementations. The most complex methods allowing meeting the latest limits were presented. Pros and cons of available control methods were thoroughly described and methods were compared. The most adequate methods form the effectiveness and economical point of view was pointed out.

Open access
Flaps Influence on Wing in Ground Effect Lift Coefficient

Abstract

The main purpose of this article was to study flaps application influence on airfoil, which flies in the wing in ground effect with lift, and drag coefficients changes. Wing in ground effect occurs in the direct proximity of ground, it makes lift coefficient higher than in free stream flight, also decreases drag coefficient. WIG effect craft can be an alternative for traditional aircraft, but also for marine transportation. The article presents wing in ground effect creation mechanism description with height coefficient explanation, also presents experimental analysis of lift coefficient with reference to height coefficient. Airfoil with flaps simulation and for free stream flight. Application of flaps makes the wing in ground effect more efficient by lift coefficient rise, what provides also to drag coefficient rise. Flaps provide to absolute pressure rise under the airfoil. It allows to fly slower without lift force change or to make aircraft start shorter without risk of stall. The article shows also conditions and results of Ansys Fluent software simulation for NACA M8 airfoil for angles of attack equal to: 0°, 6°, 10° for three different cases: free stream flight, wing in ground flight with the clear wing, wing in ground flight with flaps, and conditions of analysis convergence.

Open access
Structure and dynamics of a public bike-sharing system. Case study of the public transport system in Białystok

, G., Wei, L., & Xu, C. (2009). Worldwide marine transportation network: Efficiency and container throughput. Chinese Physics Letters , 26 (11), 118901. Xie, F., & Levinson, D. (2009). Modeling the growth of transportation networks: a comprehensive review. Networks and Spatial Economics , 9 (3), 291-307. Yerra, B. M., & Levinson, D. M. (2005). The emergence of hierarchy in transportation networks. The Annals of Regional Science , 39 (3), 541-553.

Open access