Radim Kuneš, Petr Bartoš, Ivo Celjak, Zbyněk Havelka, Marie Šístková and Miloslav Šoch
The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days). The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.
Antonela Curteza, Viorica Cretu, Laura Macovei and Marian Poboroniuc
The life quality improvement issue is a problem of national and international interest. This acquires total different values when it is to refer to a series of disadvantaged categories, that is the persons with locomotor disabilities. It is an inevitable social responsibility to create equal opportunities for disabled people, to prevent any intentional or unintentional discrimination that they face and apply positive discrimination if necessary to improve their living standards and to let them have an equal share from social development as productive individuals of society.
A disability is any kind of restriction or inability to accomplish a certain activity, which belongs to the interval considered as “normal” for a human being. Disabilities are characterized by deficiencies or excesses in the activity or behaviour that is normally expected from a person; they can be temporary or permanent, reversible or irreversible, progressive or regressive. The physical disabilities that require the use of wheelchairs imply the manufacturing of special clothing products that meet certain needs at a functional and/or therapeutic level.
The study presents the main aspects involved in designing and developing textile products for this category of users. Therefore, the apparel that is specially designed for persons with disabilities has to: allow more freedom and independence when is being worn, correspond to the aesthetic point of view, offer psychological benefits and help to socially integrate the individual who wears it. In addition, clothes should not hinder the individual’s mobility and must allow the use of the chest and of the superior limbs to the maximum, they must be durable, have a low level of electrostatic charge, be absorbent and comfortable, present the so-called “rehabilitation functions”, and last but not least, be beneficial for the wearer both from a physical and psychological point of view.
Antonela Curteza, Viorica Cretu, Laura Macovei and Marian Poboroniuc
One of the main causes of disabling deficits is neurological affections. Many times, the evolution of the condition leads to a diminution of the patient’s life quality. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is part of the neurological rehabilitation process that comprises all the actions one can take in order to increase a patient’s integration and autonomy degree from a social and financial point of view. FES is a method based on substituting the commands that are usually transmitted by the nervous system with an electric impulse. The use of such a method on different body areas required the development of some adequate devices, starting with the stimulator itself and finishing with the way in which the stimulus is conveyed to the effectors. Textile materials that incorporate sensors and, mainly, the clothing products that have such components in their structure, have a high applicability potential; they can be used for preventing illnesses and for the rehabilitation of seniors, of people who are confined to bed, sportsmen, people who suffer from long-term illnesses, disabled people, thus diminishing the time one spends in the hospital. A possible solution for manufacturing incorporated textile electrodes consists in the insertion of some electro-conductive yarns onto textile surfaces by using a variety of technologies. The project approaches the use of knitting, a widespread textile technology. The incorporated knitted electrodes were accomplished by applying the knitting technology on single circular small diameter machines. Thus, we were able to obtain a variety of knitted articles as two-dimensional or three-dimensional tubular knitted fabric. Their dimensions, structures, and parameters correspond to the typo-dimensions of the human body and to the purpose for which the clothing product was designed. The knitted versions were tested by using a Microstim2v2 (PW = 300 μs, 40 Hz) neurostimulator for which the current intensity was adjusted to approx. 30 mA.
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