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Steffen Holzkämper, Peter Kuhry, Seija Kultti, Björn Gunnarson and Eloni Sonninen
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Helena Hercman, Marek Szczerba, Paweł Zawidzki and Agata Trojan
; Masiello and Druffel, 1998; Manino and Harvey, 2004 ; Dittmar and Koch, 2006 ; Haberstroh et al., 2006 and Dittmar and Paeng, 2009 ) or in caves ( Chang et al., 2008 ; Gradziński et al., 2003 , 2007 and Joeng et al., 2003 ).
The carbon isotopic composition of B/P products is widely used as a proxy in paleoclimatic, paleoecological, archaeological and biological studies or as an isotopic fingerprint ( Bird and Cali, 1998 ; Cressler , 2001 ; Hall et al , 2008; Schmidt et al., 2002 ; Joeng et al., 2003 ; Czimczik et al., 2005 ; Ferio et al., 2006; Chang et al
Jacek Pawlak, Marcin Błaszczyk, Helena Hercman and Šárka Matoušková
During the Pleistocene period, the Earth’s climate has been dominated by ice age cyclicity, long cold periods (glacials) have been interrupted by shorter and warmer intervals, known as interglacials. The duration of the last interglacial (LIG) has conventionally been set at 129–116 ka based on sea level variations and marine records ( Martinson et al., 1987 ; Dutton and Lambeck, 2012 ; Masson-Delmotte et al., 2013 ; Pedersen et al., 2017 ). In marine sediments, the LIG is defined as Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e ( Shackleton, 1969 ). The LIG
climatic factors in polluted areas ( Malik et al ., 2012 ).
Year-on-year variations in tree-ring widths are mainly caused by meteorological conditions. Industrial pollution impairs the sensitivity of trees to climatic factors. However, the trees retain their year-on-year tree-ring width changes, even during periods of high-pollution emissions.
Experiments and analyses of the stable isotope composition of annual tree rings conducted by various scientists (e.g., Craig, 1954 ; Burk and Stuiver, 1981 ; Leavitt and Long, 1982 ; Edwards and Fritz, 1986 ; Ehrelinger