, Eber O, Ott W, Peter F, Podoba J, Simescu M, Szybinski Z, Vertongen F, Vitti P, Wiersinga W, Zamrazil V. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodinedeficiency. Eur. J. Endocrinol 136, 180–187, 1997.
Ermans AM. Etiopathogenesis of Endemic Goiter. In: Endemic Goiter and Endemic Cretinism (Eds: Stanbury JB, Hetzel BS), pp 287–301, J Wiley, New York, 1980.
Hynes KL, Otahal P, Hay I, Burgess JR. Mild IodineDeficiency During Pregnancy Is Associated With Reduced Educational Outcomes in the
1. Disorders ICfCoID, UNICEF, Organization WH. Assessment of iodinedeficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd ed: World Health Organization; 2007.
2. Zoeller RT. Transplacental thyroxine and fetal brain development. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:954.
3. DeMaeyer E, Lowenstein FW, Thilly C, Organization WH. The control of endemic goitre: World Health Organization; 1979.
4. Sullivan KM, May W, Nordenberg D, Houston R, Maberly GF. Use of thyroid
Margareta Dobrenic, Drazen Huic, Marijan Zuvic, Darko Grosev, Ratimir Petrovic and Tatjana Samardzic
-Rutten C, Goslings BM, Stokkel MP, Pereira Arias AM, Diamant M, et al. Effects of low-iodide diet on post surgical radioiodide ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol 2003; 58: 428-35.
Tomoda C, Uruno T, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, et al. Reevaluation of stringent low iodine diet in outpatient preparation of radioiodine examination and therapy. Endocr J 2005; 52: 237-40.
WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. Assessment of the IodineDeficiency Disorders and Monitoring
Obiectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of pregnant women, originating from Dobrogea region of southeastern Romania, considered to be an area without iodine deficiency, including the Black Sea area. Materials and methods: We enrolled 324 pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy. Each case was reviewed by a detailed madical history, clinical examination and by serum dosage of thyroid hormones: TSH, FT4, and the antithyroidperoxidase. They were evaluated by comparison with trimester -specific reference range for TSH recommended by American Thyroid Association, then the results were compared with those obtained using the manufacturers reference range. Abortion rate was also analysed. Results: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was different in all the 3 trimesters: subclinical hypothyroidism being the most frequently approx. 24% of all cases; 7% of pregnant women had overt hypothyroidism. Incidence of thyrotoxicosis in entire study cases was approx. 5.5%. The most frecvent thyroid autoimune disorders were Hashimoto thyroiditis: 42 % - I trimester, 26,6% in II trimester and about 12,5 % in III-trimester; Graves disease have an incidence of only 0,9 % (n=3).The difference between reference methods eluded a lower number of cases using manufactures reference range for TSH (P< 0,001), but higher for recommended trimester - specific TSH value, confirming the undervalueted hypothesis. The risk of misclassifying the hypothyroidism is between 3 %-8 %. Conclusion: Necessity for thyroid hormone dosage periodic/trimesterly/ in pregnancy is a preventive measure. The reference values for hormonal dosage requires trimester-specific assessment. The possibility of hormonal disorders during pregnancy is common. The need for specific therapy at diagnosis depends on the nature of hormonal disorder. Further precautions are needed in pregnant women with known autoimmune thyroid disorder or newly diagnosed
. The eradication of iodinedeficiency in the Albanian population (4.7)
7. Anaemia prevalence assessment and the prevention of IDA (4.0)
8. The improvement of oral health (3.8)
9.The establishment of a national network for M&E of the nutritional status of the population (4.2)
10. Managing the nutritional education, informing the
Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2312-17.
4. Vanderpump MPJ, Tunbridge WMG, French JM, Appleton D, Bates D, Clark F, et al. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty year follow-up of the Wickham survey. Clin Endocrinol. 1995;43:55-68
5. Zois C, Stavrou I, Kalogera C, Svarna E. High prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in school children after elimination of iodinedeficiency in northwestern Greece. Thyroid. 2003; 13:485-9.
6. Inoue M, Taketani N, Sato T, Nakajima H. High incidence of chronic lymphocytic
Sonia L. Elsharkawy, Wafaa E. AbdEl-Aal, Reham S. E. Esmal, Hanan H. M. Ali, Soheir M. Mahfouz and Ahmed El-Habashi
Classification of Tumors: pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Endocrine Organs. Lyon, IARC Press, 2007.
17. Danque POV, Chen HB, Patil J, et al. Image analysis versus flow cytometry for DNA ploidy quantitation of solid tumors: a comparison of six methods of sample preparation. Mod Pathol. 1993; 6:270-275.
18. Onaran Y, Tezelman S, Gurel N, Teiziolgu T, Oguz H, Tanakol R, KapranY. The value of DNA content in predicting the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma in an iodinedeficiency region. Acta chir belg. 1999;99:30-35.
19. Borget I, Vielh P, Leboulleux S, Allyn M, De
Rucsandra Dănciulescu Miulescu and Andrada Doina Mihai
. Romano R, Jannini EA, Pepe M et al. The effects of iodoprophylaxis on thyroid size during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164: 482-485, 1991.
10. World Health Organization. United Nations Children’s Fund & International Council for the Control of IodineDeficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodinedeficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination, 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2007. Accessed at: www.who.int/nutrition/publications/WHOStatement__IDD_pregnancy.
11. Yoshimura M, Hershman JM. Thyrotropic action of human chorionic
residing in high altitude areas. Iodinedeficiency during pregnancy can lead to increased miscarriages and stillbirths, and other severe pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Likewise, the mortality rate for those <5 years old was 104 per 1,000 live births, while infant mortality rate was 86 per 1,000 births, which is the highest rate in Pakistan. These health issues have been further augmented by poor literacy, lack of proper health-safety measures, and malnutrition during pregnancy. Thus, this entire scenario may explain the high prevalence of sporadic, and not necessarily
Hakki Yilmaz, M. Cakmak, B. Ceydilek, C. Demir and A. Aktas
cellular compartments correlates with opposite phenotypic manifestations of autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid 11, 233-244, 2001.
Gutekunst R, Smolarek H, Hasenpusch U, et al. Goiter epidemiology: thyroid volume, iodine excretion, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin in Germany and Sweden. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 112, 494-501, 1986.
Gutekunst R, Martin-Teichert H. Requirements for goiter surveys and the determination of thyroid size. In: IodineDeficiency in Europe. A Continuing Concern. Delange F, Dunn JT, Glinoer D. Eds. New York: Plenum