the transfer literature, within geography, transfer theorists are criticized though for being overly focused on the involvement of outside actors, creating typologies of their various roles rather than analyzing the power relations between importing and exporting actors (for lengthier critique of policy transfer see McCann 2011 ; Peck 2011 ).
In diffusion studies, the concept of intermediaries emerges within the nomenclature of ‘change agents’ ( Hagerstrand 1952 : 3) as the arbiters of whether or not to adopt an innovation. Intermediaries are said to aid
objectives of all introduced policies and tools. Technological and social innovations have been important means for achieving this goal, means which have contributed significantly to the city’s renown. A clear vision for developing a Smart City was developed in 2014 ( Amar Flórez 2016 : 7). The strategic themes of the Smart City programme include citizen participation, open government (accessibility of data and public information), social innovation (by participation and self-governance) and sustainability (economic, social and environmental).
Importantly, open and easy
Politics Henderson G.L. Waterstone M. Geographic Thought: A Praxis Perspective Routledge, New York 72–91
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Häikiö, L. (2012) From innovation to convention: legitimate citizen participation in local governance Local Government Studies, 38(4), 415–435. DOI: 10.1080/03003930.2012.698241. 10.1080/03003930.2012.698241 Häikiö L. 2012
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Colton T. 1995 Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press London, England & Cambridge, Massachusetts
Ding, X. & Li, J. (2015) Incentives for Innovation in China
The paper analyses the problem of a rural region in the peripheral position. Bojkovice micro-region on the Czech (Moravian)-Slovak border has been chosen as a case study. Economic transformation of productive and non-productive branches, demographic development (depopulation and aging) and networking in the area were characterized by using statistical data and field research. Development, understood as improvement in quality of life and not in sense of quantitative growth, is highlighted with regard to the changing perception of the countryside. The question remains: how to use peripherality for prosperity? Peripheral countryside is known as “the right countryside” in comparison to suburbanized and globalized countryside in core regions. Based on the research, production embedded in local sources and traditions, ecological agriculture using the protection of landscape and soft tourism are proposed as solutions. Networking like the association of municipalities, LEADER local action group or White Carpathian Euroregion could be the instruments of micro-regional collaboration. The human and social factors seem to be more important than objective conditions. Long-term population stability is the main advantage. However, a lower level of formal education could be a problem. The character of social capital is considered as a decisive circumstance - whether it is passive social capital resistant to outer innovations or active social capital open for now ideas.
Magdalena Bialic-Davendra, Pavel Bednář, Lukáš Danko and Jana Matošková
’s Stage of Development - Good Practice Examples as an Inspiration for the Czech Cluster Policy Advancement. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific Conference Finance and the Performance of Firms in Science, Education, and Practice, Zlin, pp. 96-112.
Bialic-Davendra, M., Pavelková, D. and Vejmělková, E., 2014: The Clusters Phenomenon in the Selected Central European Countries. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Bilton, Ch. and Cummings, S., 2010: Creative Strategy: Reconnecting Business and Innovation. New
in the beginning of the 1990s by Etzkowitz (1993) , then developed by Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (1995) . However, the neo-institutional perspective of the concept was further provided by numerous case studies that covered the role of universities in disseminating innovations not only in Europe ( Inzelt, 2004 ) or the US, but also in Africa ( Konde, 2004 ; Booyens, 2011 ) and Latin America ( Mello, Rocha, 2004 ; Etzkowitz, Mello and Almeida, 2005 ).
Over the last decade, some studies on the opportunities for application of the Triple Helix model in Russia have
reverses the traditional theory in economic geography that people follow jobs, and instead suggests that the creative class is highly mobile and can be attracted to a place, as they prefer locations that are highly developed, have a wide range of amenities and are tolerant towards different types of lifestyle and personal orientation ( Florida, 2002 ; Sacco et al., 2014 ). Talent can thus be attracted to places, usually advanced post-industrial cities or ‘creative cities’ and, once there, these pools of talent will attract high-technology industries, promote innovation
Olena Hrechyshkina CDFMR and Maryia Samakhavets CDFMR
). Vneshniaia torgovlia i razvitie ekonomiki Belarusi (Foreign trade and economic development of Belarus – in Russian). The Science and Innovations, 1, 4-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29235/1818-9857-2019-1-4-12 Dayneko A. Beresnev D. 2019 Vneshniaia torgovlia i razvitie ekonomiki Belarusi (Foreign trade and economic development of Belarus – in Russian) The Science and Innovations 1 4 – 12 https://doi.org/10.29235/1818-9857-2019-1-4-12
Doing Business 2019. Training for reform. (2019). Available at: http