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Physical Performance Differences Between Starter and Non‐Starter Players During Professional Soccer Friendly Matches

official FIFA rules with the team’s coaches officiating the match. During each match, players wore their competition clothes and carried a GPS device inserted into a small harness (Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) attached to their back to record match demands. Participants were allowed to consume fluids ad libitum during rest periods of the matches. To minimize the influence of hydration status on performance, and to avoid dehydration (Convertino et al., 1996), all participants were advised to maintain their normal pre‐match diet with a greater focus being

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Application of Virtual Reality in Competitive Athletes – A Review

Introduction One of the fundamental aims of participating in sport is to maximise athletes’ performance. Research and innovation technology provide an increasing number of information about technical and tactical sport profiles, supporting physical training. In recent years, virtual reality technology (VR) has been often used in many areas of science, finding an application in military, education, mental health, medical therapy and sport. VR is a visual‐based computer simulation which can reproduce a realistic and controlled environment. Its definition is

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The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Innovative Work Behavior for Sports Services in Tourism Enterprises

References Advi Alpay, G., Bodur, M., Yilmaz, C., & Buyukbalci, P. (2012). How does innovativeness yield superior firm performance? The role of marketing effectiveness. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, 14(1), 107-128. DOI:10.5172/impp.2012.14.1.107. Amabile, T.M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 10, 123-167. Atay, K. (2001). Okul kulturu /The culture of school/. Kuramdan Uygulamaya Egitim Yonetimi /Educational administration: Theory

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Research on Relative Age in Hungarian Swimming

Abstract

In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400). The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

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The Positive Effects of a Combined Program of Creative Dance and BrainDance on Health-Related Ouality of Life as Perceived by Primary School Students

Abstract

The combination of Creative Dance and BrainDance within the context of physical education could be a promising innovation. This combined program can be implemented in primary school to help students achieve a better and more holistic assessment of their Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), covering aspects of physical, emotional, social, and mental functioning and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that a combined Creative Dance and BrainDance program based on the Laban Theory of Movement Analysis has on HRQoL perceptions of primary school students when this program is implemented within the context of the physical education curriculum in primary school. For this purpose, an eight-week educational intervention was designed combining Creative Dance and BrainDance into one single program. The survey sample consisted of 32 fifth- and sixth-grade primary school students. The Kidscreen-52 questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed with the use of descriptive statistical indices and mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Although the results showed no differences between the beginning and end of the educational intervention, a fact that might be due to the small sample and the time of the implementation of the program (limited to 8 weeks), its implementation produced very good results with regard to improvisation, body control, balance, and coordination, as well as kinaesthetic awareness and musical rhythmic skills. Creative Dance and BrainDance promote imagination, creativity, improvisation, and self-esteem in general, particularly in primary school students..

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The Determinants of Polish Society’s Participation in Sport and the Directions of Change

Abstract

Sport plays an important role in modern societies, including those in Europe. However, individual countries differ in terms of their citizens’ participation in universally accessible sport. In some societies, the percentage of people who pursue different sports is high, while in other countries it is insignificant. What are the reasons behind such differences? What variables are crucial to accounting for these differences? How has Polish society changed in this regard? Theoretical and empirical analyses show that people in Poland are becoming increasingly active when it comes to sport. In terms of taking part in sport, Polish society is starting to catch up with other European societies. The decisive role in the process is played by: a) social factors (education and affluence), b) the ideals and values that dominate the local culture (physical appearance, kinetic pleasures, and positive emotions), and c) the efficiency and adequacy of the physical education system in schools (innovation, the use of cyberspace, and efforts aimed at addressing social needs). If these three areas of socialization - society, culture and physical education in schools - reach a high level of convergence and if fewer variables hinder the process than at present, people in Poland will become as physically active as other societies in the West.

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Social Stratification in Japanese and Some Other Martial Arts: A Comparison and Discussion of Changes

.R. Svinth (Eds.), Martial arts of the world: an encyclopedia of history and innovation (pp. 129-148). Santa Barbara (CA): ABC-Clio, Green, T.A., Svinth, J.R. (Eds). (2010). Martial arts of the world: an encyclopedia of history and innovation . Santa Barbara (CA): ABC-Clio. Halbrook, S. (1974). Oriental philosophy, martial arts and class-struggle. Social Praxis, 2(1-2), 135-143. Inoue, S. (1998). Budo: Invented tradition in the martial arts. In S. Linhart and S. Frühstück (Eds.), The culture of Japan as seen through its leisure (pp

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Sports Sponsorship Evolution in the Economic Recession: Analytical Evidence from Empirical Cases

U.S.-based sport leagues (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Sneath, J.Z., Finney, R.Z., & Close, A.G. (2005). An IMC approach to event marketing: The effects of sponsorship and experience on customer attitudes. Journal of Advertising Research, 45(4), 373-381. Stage Up-Ipsos. (2013). Indagine predittiva sulle sponsorizzazioni (Forecasting analysis on sponsorships). Bologna, Italy: Stage Up, Ipsos. Teece, D.J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for

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Segmentation by Motivational Factors of Fantasy Football Consumers and Differences Among Segments

relationship of knowledge management market orientation and marketing innovation: A research on furniture industry. Eskisehir Osmangazi University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 6(1), 31-69. Farquhar, L.K. & Meeds, R. (2007). Types of fantasy sports users and their motivations. J. Comput.-Mediat. Comm., 12(4), 1208-1228. DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00370.x. Funk, D.C. (2002). Consumer-based marketing: The use of micro-segmentation strategies for understanding sport consumption. Int. J Sport Mark. Spo., 4(3), 39-64. DOI: 10

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Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

structure, and due to this are sometimes seen as undisciplined. Innovation potential may be viewed in the sport as a set of dysfunctional traits such as arrogance, manipulation, drama, eccentricity and lower levels of caution, perfection and dependence ( Zibarras et al., 2008 ); these may be expressed in socially unacceptable behaviour. The above-mentioned traits in the light of what we know about the mechanism of (non)conformism ( Bernacka, 2009 ) should be interpreted as signs of individual's usage of his/her creative personality, which is made difficult by some

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