our attachment to all kinds of socio-cultural values is an important factor in the fabric of today’s societies, since it defines to a large extent our identity.
Yet at the same time, the above has also made clear that, in our times, socio-cultural identity has lost its self-evidence and stability. Technological innovation, economic developments, secularization, individualization, growing mobility, etc. have changed Western societies beyond recognition during the last 50 years. Against this background, it is no wonder that people have problems in answering the
What keeps cultural studies in motion and, more difficult still, what hold them together? They are continuously animated through so-called ‚turns‘ that in regular intervals open up new perspectives and transform the leading issues and concepts. Such regular innovations are not only due to internal readjustments in terms of methodological changes but are also connected to cultural and social changes. In this way, cultural studies have become an integral part of the transformation of the world as we see and construct it. They are not only a lense through which we observe the transformation of the world, but also a tool with which it is produced. In this active engagement and entanglement with the real world, cultural studies have lost a sense of their professional boundaries. They are constantly extending their realm of research, incorporating avidly new territory. To the extent that cultural studies have embraced the project of cultural self-thematization and self-transformation, they have become as fluid and volatile as culture itself.
of a more general process of ethnoreligious innovation within the European Gypsy Pentecostalism as such. In this context, also refer the article of Manuela Cantón-Delgado (2017 , 87) and her interpretation of Gypsy leadership and new forms of internal cohesion within the Evangelical Church of Philadelphia in Spain as “innovation”.
Social Theory Inspirations
The Norwegian ethnographer Thomas Hylland Eriksen pointed out in his famous work Ethnicity versus Nationalism (1991) that ethnicity refers to the social reproduction of basic classificatory
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. ( … ) It was not always this way. And it is getting better every day. I am speaking about Kenya ’ s capacity to testify the entrepreneurship , innovation , investment and growth on a transformative scale. (12)
This text is quite straightforward in contrasting economic agenda with the political one. The former is seen as “a rational conversation” between equal partners who share the interest in economic opportunities and investment. Thus, the latter seems to be viewed as an irrational conversation between a teacher and his seemingly disobedient pupil. Human rights and
, it is the utmost dependency of the Russian patriarch on the contemporary figure of tsar that hindered him from supporting his Ukrainian faithful during the conflict with Russia. This, in turn, contributed to the weakening of the authority of the Russian Church in Ukraine.
No less importantly, the 1666–1667 Council adopted all the innovations introduced before by Nikon. The Council also anathematized the leaders of the adherents of the old faith, that is partisans of the traditional, pre- reform Orthodoxy (the so-called Old Believers). Curiously, the Council also