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Multiple manuscripts of Hans Talhoffer’s fifteenth-century Fechtbuch depict duels between combatants wielding faceted clubs and tall shields, as well as combatants in tight-fitting grey clothing, and duels between a man and a woman. Legal ordinances and court records from Talhoffer’s time and before him provide context for these scenarios and this equipment. Customary law regarding judicial duels varied significantly between German regions. It also changed over time, shaped by influences that sometimes originated well outside German-speaking lands. Talhoffer’s work and the Fechtbücher that followed him reflect a practice that spanned multiple regions, preserving fading traditions while embracing new innovations.
Jesús V. Giménez, Anthony S. Leicht and Miguel A. Gomez
official FIFA rules with the team’s coaches officiating the match. During each match, players wore their competition clothes and carried a GPS device inserted into a small harness (Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) attached to their back to record match demands. Participants were allowed to consume fluids ad libitum during rest periods of the matches. To minimize the influence of hydration status on performance, and to avoid dehydration (Convertino et al., 1996), all participants were advised to maintain their normal pre‐match diet with a greater focus being
Anna Akbaş, Wojciech Marszałek, Anna Kamieniarz, Jacek Polechoński, Kajetan J. Słomka and Grzegorz Juras
One of the fundamental aims of participating in sport is to maximise athletes’ performance. Research and innovation technology provide an increasing number of information about technical and tactical sport profiles, supporting physical training. In recent years, virtual reality technology (VR) has been often used in many areas of science, finding an application in military, education, mental health, medical therapy and sport.
VR is a visual‐based computer simulation which can reproduce a realistic and controlled environment. Its definition is
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Baggio, R., & Scaglione, M. (2018). Strategic visitor flows
Ersin Eskiler, Summani Ekici, Fikret Soyer and Ihsan Sari
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Mikołaj Bielański, Susanna Saari, Anna Wilkońska, Telle Tuominen, Inma Mora, Daniel Binder, Deborah Kendale, Harprit Thacker, Agata Pluszyńska and Paweł Adamski
Challenges for the European SPA Management. Results of the ILIS Project
Introduction. The spa industry has been rapidly growing throughout Europe in recent years, which has led to an associated increase in educational demand in spa management. The aim of the study was to identify the most important needs for training and the most significant skills among the spa managers and their personnel throughout Europe. Moreover, it was to research the background of spas were the study had taken place. Material and methods. 30 managers took part in semi structured interviews that used a pre-prepared questionnaire. The answers were analysed with Wilcoxon signed rank test and also the mean values were compared. Results. The needs for training and importance of skills vary from country to country but common areas of interest are: sales, marketing, quality and innovation management, legal regulations, operational and social skills. The complex character of answers to questionnaire was a result of different spa business models and differing domestic spa markets as well as variety of legal environments. Conclusions. Spa tourism creates a significant income among the other tourism disciplines since that further research is needed. Demands for the spa education differed accordingly to a stage of each country spa business development. Spa managers tend to express higher training needs for their employees than for themselves.
Sport plays an important role in modern societies, including those in Europe. However, individual countries differ in terms of their citizens’ participation in universally accessible sport. In some societies, the percentage of people who pursue different sports is high, while in other countries it is insignificant. What are the reasons behind such differences? What variables are crucial to accounting for these differences? How has Polish society changed in this regard? Theoretical and empirical analyses show that people in Poland are becoming increasingly active when it comes to sport. In terms of taking part in sport, Polish society is starting to catch up with other European societies. The decisive role in the process is played by: a) social factors (education and affluence), b) the ideals and values that dominate the local culture (physical appearance, kinetic pleasures, and positive emotions), and c) the efficiency and adequacy of the physical education system in schools (innovation, the use of cyberspace, and efforts aimed at addressing social needs). If these three areas of socialization - society, culture and physical education in schools - reach a high level of convergence and if fewer variables hinder the process than at present, people in Poland will become as physically active as other societies in the West.