numerous treatment planning studies comparing different modalities ( i.e . 3D-CRT vs . IMRT vs . VMAT) and usually depends on the available equipment, technical innovations, irradiated volume, treatment planning system with dose calculation algorithm, and skills of the planner.
There are numerous publications comparing the dosimetric parameters of radiotherapy plans, mostly for patients with left-sided early BC. Some of them have been summarised in a review of treatment planning options by Balaji et al . where most authors favoured hybrid planning techniques (3D CRT
Galimbert V, Luini A, Paganelli G, Cassano E, et al. Use of Tc-99 labelled colloidal albumin for preoperative and intraoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. Breast 1997; 6: 317-8.
Barros A, Cardoso MA, Sheng PY, Costa PA, Peizon C. Radioguided localisation of non-palpable breast lesions and simultaneous sentinel lymph node mapping. Eur J Nucl Med Imaging 2002; 29: 1561-5.
Paganelli G, Veronesi U. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery
Mahdi Ghorbani, Benyamin Khajetash, Najmeh Ghatei, Mohammad Mehrpouyan, Ali S. Meigooni and Ramin Shahraini
calculations. Overall radiation time is thus prolonged using this irradiation technique. The I-RSBT could be promising also for some other sites in brachytherapy like gynecology or breast brachytherapy. It is interesting as a subject of further research.
Additionally, the dose distribution around the source in shielded mode is less symmetrical compared to unshielded source which could be accounted as a disadvantage ( Figure 7 ). However this can be compensated in treatment planning. This leads to “Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy” which is considered as an innovation at
Li Ma, Yu Men, Lingling Feng, Jingjing Kang, Xin Sun, Meng Yuan, Wei Jiang and Zhouguang Hui
individualized increments for different patients, and adopting new technologies and new equipment such as new radiation therapy, no consensus has been achieved yet. It is expected that the ongoing clinical trials and explorations for increasing doses of radiotherapy can further improve control rate survival in LANSCLC.
This study was supported by National key research and development program (2017YFC1311000), Beijing Hope Run Special Fund of Cancer Foundation of China (No.LC2016L03), CAMS Innovation Fund (No.2016-I2M-1-011), Clinical Application
Taja Lozar, Klara Gersak, Maja Cemazar, Cvetka Grasic Kuhar and Tanja Jesenko
-derived CTC cultures were first established 134 , though implementation of the procedure into regular clinical practice has proven to be difficult due to the low efficiency of available detection methods as well as prolonged periods needed to establish cell lines. 135 CTC-based patient-derived xenografts represent an innovation in cancer research with the potential to guide therapy or pre-clinical drug testing and biomarker identification. CTCs are isolated from the patient’s blood and injected into immunocompromised animals. Subsequently generated xenografts can be used