Decoding Visual Metaphor ‘Global Warming’ in Public Awareness Campaigns
Innovation through Knowledge Management and Social Media Strategies. IGI Global.
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The present paper attempts to systematize and explain the changes in Proto-Ryukyuan (PR) vowels in a post-nasal position as observed in the lexicon of five daughter languages: Ie-Kunigamian/Okinawan, Shuri-Okinawan, Hirara-Miyakoan, Shika-Yaeyaman and Yonaguni/Dunan. The changes in question are related to the mid-vowel raising, which supposedly occurred only after the split of PR, but currently bears the markings of an unconditioned change in virtually in all daughter languages.
Starting with an assumption that in some environments, the post-nasal raising of the mid-vowels led to the merger of original mid- and close vowels, while in different environments changes to the original close vowels keeps the reflexes of mid- and close vowels apart, the paper analyzes and compares Ryukyuan vocabulary containing the pertinent sound sequences of *mi, *mu, *ni and *nu, contrasting it with the reflexes of *me, *mo, *ne and *no. By scrutinizing in detail as many different environments of the sound sequences in question as possible, the paper aims to discover some patterns in the behavior of these sequences, examining both shared innovations and shared retentions among the daughter languages, observing the differences in the PR distribution of post-nasal mid-and close vowels, and entertaining the implications these findings hold for the general knowledge of PR.
El objetivo de este artìculo es describir una enriquecedora experiencia de aprendizaje que se está llevando a cabo en la Universidad de Valladolid con estudiantes de traducciñn e interpretaciñn y expertos en el área participantes de un proyecto de innovaciñn docente de excelencia.
Este proyecto supone una experiencia formativa y colaborativa en la que los estudiantes participantes reciben una formaciñn práctica como complemento a sus estudios (de gran utilidad en su tarea diaria y de cara a su futuro profesional), y los expertos actúan como mentores en una relaciñn horizontal de ayuda, apoyo, confianza y refuerzo positivo caracterìstica del liderazgo transformacional. El objetivo principal es fomentar que los estudiantes aprendan a trabajar en equipo de forma eficaz viéndose a sì mismos como profesionales actuando en un contexto real y significativo en el que se contemplan y valoran sus ideas, destrezas y fortalezas.
This article will examine the validity of existing assessment procedures in the UK and compare and contrast these models with other possible assessment and accreditation models. It will also examine the possibilities for quality assessment (QA) procedures offered by the use of digital technologies. Implicit in this descriptive and analytical process will be an examination of the linkages between these models of assessment and the opportunity for professional registration.
Issues addressed in this article will be: the status quo in the assessment and registration of interpreters and translators for the public sector in the UK; the impact of new social, political and economic realities on the existing assessment and registration regime; the opportunities and/or threats to quality norms represented by online digital technologies.
The material will be of particular interest to: end users of interpreter and translator services in the public sector; interpreting and translation test developers and QA procedure designers; interpreting and translating practitioners, in-service and aspiring
This paper introduces my concept of cognitive equivalence (cf. Mandelblit, 1997), an attempt to reconcile elements of Nida’s dynamic equivalence with recent innovations in cognitive linguistics and cognitive psychology, and building on the current focus on translators’ mental processes in translation studies (see e.g. Göpferich et al., 2009, Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, 2010; Halverson, 2014). My approach shares its general impetus with Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk’s concept of re-conceptualization, but is independently derived from findings in cognitive linguistics and simulation theory (see e.g. Langacker, 2008; Feldman, 2006; Barsalou, 1999; Zwaan, 2004). Against this background, I propose a model of translation processing focused on the internal simulation of reader reception and the calibration of these simulations to achieve similarity between ST and TT impact. The concept of cognitive equivalence is exemplarily tested by exploring a conceptual / lexical field (MALE BALDNESS) through the way that English, German and Japanese lexical items in this field are linked to matching visual-conceptual representations by native speaker informants. The visual data gathered via this empirical method can be used to effectively triangulate the linguistic items involved, enabling an extra-linguistic comparison across languages. Results show that there is a reassuring level of interinformant agreement within languages, but that the conceptual domain for BALDNESS is linguistically structured in systematically different ways across languages. The findings are interpreted as strengthening the call for a cognition-focused, embodied approach to translation.
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Carr, Nicholas. The Shallows: How internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London
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Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Shen, Yuan Kui, Aiden, Aviva P., Veres, Adrian, Gray, Matthew K., The Google Books Team, Pickett, Joseph P., Hoiberg, Dale, Clancy, Dan, Norvig, Peter, Orwant, Jon, Pinker, Steven, Nowak, Martin A. Erez Lieberman Aiden. 2011. Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science, 331(6014), 176-182.
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