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the transfer literature, within geography, transfer theorists are criticized though for being overly focused on the involvement of outside actors, creating typologies of their various roles rather than analyzing the power relations between importing and exporting actors (for lengthier critique of policy transfer see McCann 2011 ; Peck 2011 ).
In diffusion studies, the concept of intermediaries emerges within the nomenclature of ‘change agents’ ( Hagerstrand 1952 : 3) as the arbiters of whether or not to adopt an innovation. Intermediaries are said to aid
objectives of all introduced policies and tools. Technological and social innovations have been important means for achieving this goal, means which have contributed significantly to the city’s renown. A clear vision for developing a Smart City was developed in 2014 ( Amar Flórez 2016 : 7). The strategic themes of the Smart City programme include citizen participation, open government (accessibility of data and public information), social innovation (by participation and self-governance) and sustainability (economic, social and environmental).
Importantly, open and easy
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Statistics of China
Number of employees (thousand)
Train kilometres (millions)
Employment per train kilometres (thousand)
The rail freight business has not really been renowned for innovation and a technology driven approach. This is rather a low-tech, low-profit industry which specialises in bulk products. There have been numerous attempts to position the industry for higher
Economic development, social cohesion and responsive governance are recognised in the academic and political debate as essential for survival in today’s world – and cities are seen as crucial to achieving these goals ( Buck et al. 2005 ). A growing body of research suggests that cities are complex, interrelated environments that foster the generation of new ideas. Cities are home to most jobs, companies and institutions of higher education, are home to change based on innovation, spirit of enterprise and economic growth. Cities are the driving
by social and institutional factors. If the city is considered as a system, it may become resilient when the relations of its network are strong and, at the same time, adaptable ( Pisano 2012 ). This ensures the flow of information, knowledge, and innovation and may lead to a state in which the city is prepared for the consequences of climate change. Therefore, the concept of resilience has first to be embedded in society and in institutions that are able to shape the urban network. The paper focuses on institutions, as they have the power to create regulations
John Graunt, the population of this city was continuously growing. Along with a parallel increase in energy consumption, the improvement of living conditions in cities and more hygienic habits of their inhabitants allow a dramatic reduction in the mortality factors in London identified by John Graunt: smallpox, chickenpox, measles, parasites and plague. Against the overall background, the results are marvellous: the urban environment, transformed by human effort and innovation as well as a more hygienic lifestyle, no longer has all the deadly impacts on its