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References Ahmad, J.A., Abdurahman, A.Z.A, Ali, J.K., Khedif, L.Y.B. and Bohari, Z., 2014: Social entrepreneurship in ecotourism: an opportunity for fishing village of Sebuyau, Sarawak Borneo. In: Tourism, Leisure and Global Change, Vol. 1, pp. 1-39. Alonso, A.D., 2011: Opportunities and challenges in the development of micro-brewing and beer tourism: a preliminary study from Alabama. In: Tourism Planning and Development, Vol. 8 (4), pp. 415-431. Antonelli, C., 2009: The economics of innovation: from the classical legacies to the economics of complexity. In

References Acs, Z. and Varga, A. 2002: Geography, endogenous growth and innovation. In: International Regional Science Review , 25, pp. 132-148. DOI: 10.1177/016001702762039484 Acs, Z., Anselin, L. and Varga, A. 2002: Patents and innovation counts as measures of regional production of new knowledge. In: Research Policy , 31, pp. 1069-1085. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333 (01)00184-6 Ahuja, G. and Katila, R. 2001: Technological acquisition and the innovation performance of acquiring firms: a longitudinal study. In: Strategic Management Journal , 22, pp. 197-220. DOI


This article is dedicated to the “Baltars” collective porcelain painting workshop (1924–1930), founded in Riga, Latvia by three modernist artists: painters Romans Suta (1896–1944) and Aleksandra Beļcova (1892–1981) and graphic artist Sigismunds Vidbergs (1890–1970).The “Baltars” phenomenon is significant because of the innovations that the artists brought to the landscape of Latvian porcelain manufacturing and its exhibition activities in the 1920s and the early 1930s, both local and in the Baltic Sea region—Lithuania, Estonia, and Sweden. The article investigates “Baltars” foundation and closure, artistic activities of the company, its attempts to enter the international art and trade scene, and its accomplishments. Special attention is paid to the amalgamation of modernisation, nationalism, and state-building manifested in their paintings on porcelain. Due to the present growing interest in porcelain art in Latvia, triggered by numerous exhibitions and publications, discourse on the “Baltars” phenomenon has become topical.


The process of questioning the authority of academic history—in the form in which it emerged at the turn of the 19th century—began in the 1970s, when Hayden White pointed out the rhetorical dimension of historical discourse. His British colleague Alun Munslow went a step further and argued that the ontological statuses of the past and history are so different that historical discourse cannot by any means be treated as representation of the past. As we have no access to that which happened, both historians and artists can only present the past in accordance with their views and opinions, the available rhetorical conventions, and means of expression.

The article revisits two examples of experimental history which Munslow mentioned in his : Robert A. Rosenstone’s and Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht’s . It allows reassessing their literary strategies in the context of a new wave of works written by historians and novelists who go beyond the fictional/factual dichotomy. The article focuses on Polish counterfactual writers of the last two decades, such as Wojciech Orliński, Jacek Dukaj, and Aleksander Głowacki. Their novels corroborate the main argument of the article about a turn which has been taking place in recent experimental historying: the loss of previous interest in formal innovations influenced by modernist avant-garde fiction. Instead, it concentrates on demonstrating the contingency of history to strategically extend the unknowability of the future or the past(s) and, as a result, change historying into speculative thinking.

innovations. In this context, tariffs became the key to financial equilibrium of sanitation services. The question is: how do those changes affect low-income families? The discussion that follows will show how changes in the model for financing basic sanitation affect social inequality and urban segregation, and will discuss alternatives to minimise their impact on low-income populations. In terms of methodology, the first step is to explain why infrastructure is important to capital accumulation and what roles are played by both the public and the private sector. As a

Agüeros, M., Casares, P., Coto-Millán, P. and Pesquera, M.A. , 2013: A new approach on innovation and its application to European Union countries. In: Quastiones Geographicae , Vol. 32, 2, pp. 5-14. Afriat, S. , 1972: Efficiency estimation of production functions. In: International Economic Review , No. 13, 3, pp. 568-598. Aigner, D. and Chu, S. , 1968: On estimating the industry production function. In: The American Economic Review , No. 54, 4, pp. 826-839. Aigner, D., Lowell, C. and Schmidt, P. , 1977: Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier Chu, Y-H., 2013: Coping with the Global Financial Crises: institutional and ideational sources of Taiwan’s economic resiliency. In: Journal of Contemporary China, Taylor & Francis Group, Volume 22, Issue 82, pp. 649-668. DOI: 4.2013.766385 Clark, J., Huang, H.I. and Walsh, J., 2010: A typology of ‘Innovation Districts’: what it means for regional resilience, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 121-137. DOI: Czapiński, J. and Panek, T

.11.2016)). Urbanowicz, W. (2016). Wrocław: Rynek nie oferuje elektrobusów, jakich potrzebujemy. Są za drogie (Wrocław: the market does not offer the electric buses that we need. They are too expensive – in Polish), , 31.10.2016 (DoA: 10.11.2016). Uyarraa, E., Flanagan, K. (2010). Understanding the Innovation Impacts of Public Procurement. European Planning Studies , 18(1), 123-143. W Inowrocławiu jeżdżą autobusy zwycięskiej marki. (2016). (In Inowrocław the buses of the winning firm are in operation – in Polish), „Kurier Inowrocławski”, 22


Since 2002 Kruger National Park (KNP) has subjected to a commercialisation strategy. Regarding income generation, SANParks (1) sees KNP as the goose that lays the golden eggs. As part of SANParks’ commercialisation strategy and in response to providing services that are efficient, predictable and calculable for a large number of tourists, SANParks has allowed well-known branded restaurants to be established in certain rest camps in KNP. This innovation has raised a range of different concerns and opinions among the public. This paper investigates the what and the where of casual dining experiences in KNP; describes how the catering services have evolved over the last 70 years; and evaluates current visitor perceptions of the introduction of franchised restaurants in the park. The main research instrument was a questionnaire survey. Survey findings confirmed that restaurant managers, park managers and visitors recognise franchised restaurants as positive contributors to the unique KNP experience. Park managers appraised the franchised restaurants as mechanisms for funding conservation.


The paper analyses the problem of a rural region in the peripheral position. Bojkovice micro-region on the Czech (Moravian)-Slovak border has been chosen as a case study. Economic transformation of productive and non-productive branches, demographic development (depopulation and aging) and networking in the area were characterized by using statistical data and field research. Development, understood as improvement in quality of life and not in sense of quantitative growth, is highlighted with regard to the changing perception of the countryside. The question remains: how to use peripherality for prosperity? Peripheral countryside is known as “the right countryside” in comparison to suburbanized and globalized countryside in core regions. Based on the research, production embedded in local sources and traditions, ecological agriculture using the protection of landscape and soft tourism are proposed as solutions. Networking like the association of municipalities, LEADER local action group or White Carpathian Euroregion could be the instruments of micro-regional collaboration. The human and social factors seem to be more important than objective conditions. Long-term population stability is the main advantage. However, a lower level of formal education could be a problem. The character of social capital is considered as a decisive circumstance - whether it is passive social capital resistant to outer innovations or active social capital open for now ideas.