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. – Preslia, 90, 83–103. Dierβen, K. 1996. Vegetation Nordeuropas. Stuttgart, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. 838 pp. Dufrêne, M., Legrendre, P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. – Ecological Monographs, 67, 345–366. Ellenberg, H. 1979. Bioindicator values of the vascular plants of Central Europe. (Zeigerwerte der Gefäßpflanzen Mitteleuropas). 2. Aufl. – Scripta Geobotanica, 9, 1–122. Fedorchuk, V.N., Neshatayev, V.Y., Kuznetsova, M.L. 2005. Forest Ecosystems of the North-Western Regions of Russia: Typology, Dynamics, Forest

sustainable forestry. Forest Ecology and Management , 258: S1-S4. Larsson T. B., Svensson L., Angelstam P., Balent G., Barbati A., Bijlsma R.-J. et al. 2001. Biodiversity evaluation tools for European forests. Ecological Bulletins , 50: 7-237. Lindenmayer D. B. 1999. Future directions for biodiversity conservation in managed forests: indicator species, impact studies and monitoring programs. Forest Ecology and Management , 115.2-3: 277-287. MacArthur R. H. 1955. Fluctuations of animal populations, and a measure of community stability. Ecology , 36: 533-536. MacArthur R


The utility of phytocenotic indices in the diagnosis and classification of forest sites might be limited because of vegetation degeneration in managed forests. However, even in secondary communities it may be possible to determine indicator species, although these may differ from typical and well known plant indicators. The aim of this work was to assess the vegetation diversity of Scots pine stands in representative forest site types along a moisture and fertility gradient. In total 120 sample plots from Turawa forests were included in the study. These plots represented young (21-40 years) and old (> 80 years) Scots-pine-dominated stands. The forest sites were categorised according to Polish site classification. Four site categories were studied: Bśw (very nutrient-poor and mesic sites), BMśw (nutrient-poor and mesic sites), BMw (nutrient-poor and moist sites), LMw (quite nutrient-rich and moist sites). The species composition of the forest patches studied hardly differed among forest site types. Almost all of the vegetation in site Bśw was different from both moist site types (BMw and LMw). Sites Bśw and LMw had the exclusive species determined as site indicators. Moreover, young stands had their own site type indicator species which differed from old stands. Numerical classification showed that only two plant communities were widespread: Leucobryo- Pinetum in Bśw and BMśw, and the community of Pinus sylvestris and Molinia caerulea in BMśw, BMw, LMw. In secondary communities typical indicator species may not be useful, but it is possible to determinate species that are locally unique to forest site type. Despite the convergence in the composition of the plant community resulting from tree stand unification, plant communities have the capacity for a more diverse composition. Tree stand conversion can increase phytocenotic diversity

. Landscape Ecology 23: 1231-1241. Peterken G.F. 1974. A method for assessing woodland flora for conservation using indicator species. Biological Conserv., 6,4: 239-45. Ratcliffe D.A. (ed.) 1977. A nature conservation review. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. Rostański A. 1998. Anthropophytes and apophytes in colonization process on the post-industrial heaps in Upper Silesia region. Phytocoenosis, vol. 10 (N.S.) Suppl. Cartogr. Geobot., 9: 199-201. Roy D.B., Hill M.O., Rothery P. 1999. Effects of urban land cover on the local species pool in Britain. Ecography, 22


This paper presents an overview of bird research carried out in the Borki Primeval Forest during the last 30 years. The Borki Primeval Forest can be considered as one of the most important forest bird sites in Poland. Its avifauna comprises 139 breeding species, including 11 rare and endangered species listed in the Polish Red Data Book of Animals as well as 30 species listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. Despite its relatively small area, the Borki Primeval Forest holds at least 1% of Polish breeding population of as many as 12 bird species. For seven out of these species it is one of the most important breeding sites in the country. The avifauna of the Borki Primeval Forest consists mostly of typical forest birds including 24 indicator species which are associated with natural forests. The richness of bird species in the Borki Primeval Forest and the abundance of several valuable groups of breeding species are the result of a high landscape and habitat diversity as well as a relatively small anthropopression combined with a high degree of naturalness of forest stands.

mittleren EW (r 2 = 0,88, p < 0,001) in 0-20 cm Bodentiefe. Tabelle 7 Häufigkeit des Vorkommens und Deckung der Bodenverdichtungszeiger Table 7. Frequency of occurrence and cover of indicator species for soil compaction Bewirtschaftsungsform Anzahl Agrostis stolonifera Bellis perennis Matricaria discoidea Plantago major ssp. major Poa annua agg . Polygonum aviculare Ranunculus repens Scorzoneroides autumnalis H D H D H D H D H D H D H D H D RF 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EM 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 IM 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2-3 1 1 MW 3 1 3 2 2-3 0

plants to secondary woodlands in southern Sweden. - Journal of Ecology, 86, 429-438. Burke, D. M., Elliott, K. A., Holmes, S. B., Bradley, D. 2008. The effects of partial harvest on the understory vegetation of southern Ontario woodlands. - Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2204-2212. Coroi, M., Skeffington, M. S., Giller, P., Smith, C., Gormally, M., O'Donovan, G. 2004. Vegetation diversity and stand structure in streamside forests in the south of Ireland. - Forest Ecology and Management, 202, 39-57. Dufrěne, P., Legendre, P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator

assemblages and indicator species: The need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67: 345-366. eFloras. 2008: Published on the Internet Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA [last accessed on April 20, 2014]. Gang, C. W., Wang, H. S., Li, N., Zeng, G. H. & Zhou, Q. P. 2008: Effect of herbicide “Langdujing” on Stellera chamaejasme control and impact on forage grass yield of alpine meadow. Pratacultural Science 25: 95-97 [in Chinese]. Guojing, Y., Duning, X., Lihua, Z. & Cuiwen, T


The aim of the study is to characterise herbaceous vegetation (meadows and ruderal communities) remaining after several decades of protection and compare it to the vegetation of currently managed local sites in the Central Forest Reserve, Tver Oblast, Russia. Cluster analysis of the communities was based on 209 relevés, while their ecological features were analysed using phytoindication assessment. The analyses revealed four types of herbaceous communities: managed mesic meadows, abandoned mesic meadows, tall-herb meadowsweet communities and ruderal tall-herb communities. These four types differ in management, floristic composition and ecological conditions as well as in coenotic and functional group shares (including forbs, graminoids and woody species). The occurrence of these species groups determines the current state of the herbaceous communities. Our study revealed that mesic meadows have retained all the key meadow features for more than 25 years without any management, although their area has shrunk and shares of coenotic and functional groups have changed. The observed herbaceous communities encompass around 40% of the reserve flora including four red list species and 16 alien species.

. Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development, London. Dessie G. & Kleman J. 2007. Pattern and Magnitude of Deforestation in the South Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia. Mountain research and development 27: 162-168. Didita M., Nemomissa S. & Woldemariam Gole T. 2010. Floristic and structural analysis of the woodland vegetation around Dello Menna, Southeast Ethiopia. J. For. Res . 21: 395-408. Dufrene M. & Legendre P. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Mono . 67: 345