References  Corp, C. I., The interpretation of IndicatorDiagrams , Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-), Vol. 20, pp. 239-244, 1905.  Chmielewski, P., Analiza statystyczna wykresu indykatorowego silnika o zapłonie samoczynnym, Politechnika Wrocławska, Wrocław 2016.  https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/cycles/esc.php .  Fudalej-Kostrzewa, E., Wykres indykatorowy silnika spalinowego , Wydział Samochodów i Maszyn Roboczych, Instytut pojazdów, Politechnika Warszawska.  Ustrzycki, A., Ocena procesu spalania na podstawie wykresu
pochodnych ciśnień cylindrowych silników okrętowych , Journal of KONES, 2000.  Polanowski, S., Główne źródła błędów pomiaru średniego ciśnienia indykowanego silników okrętowych w warunkach eksploatacji , Journal of KONES, 1995.  Rychter, T., Teodorczyk, A., Modelowanie matematyczne roboczego cyklu silnika tłokowego , PWN, Warszawa 1990.  Wajand, J. A., Pomiary szybkozmiennych ciśnień w maszynach tłokowych , WNT, Warszawa 1974.  Witkowski, K., The impact of the accuracy of indicatordiagrams on the heat release characteristics calculation, used in the
indykatorowych w aspekcie diagnostyki silników okrętowych , Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni, Nr 169A, Gdynia 2007.  Polanowski, S., Pawletko, R., Witkowski, K., Influence of pressure sensor location on the quality of thermodynamic parameters calculated from the marine engine indicatordiagram , Combustion Engines, Vol. 154 (3), pp. 319-323, 2013.  Tomczak, L., Wykorzystanie pośredniej metody określania położenia wału korbowego w indykatorze elektronicznym , praca doktorska, Politechnika Gdańska, Wydział Mechaniczny, Gdansk 2001.  Unitest
Marine engines are very complex technical objects, having many important functional systems, which include, inter alia, injection system, characterized by high unreliability. In this system, there may be different types of defects (damage) that affect the engine parameters, including specific fuel consumption, as well as failures endanger the safety of the ship. The indicator diagrams and analysis of indicated parameters have limited utility in the diagnosis of damages of marine engine, although this is a method commonly used in operational practice. To achieve greater diagnostic effectiveness, when, based on indicator diagrams, are calculated and then the characteristics of heat release is analysed - net of heat release characteristics and the intensity of the heat release, it was demonstrated. This procedure is particularly effective in the diagnosis of damages of marine diesel engine injection system components. It has been shown that the characteristics of heat release contain information about the condition of the injection systems, which enable to diagnose their failures. This is shown on the example of a clogged nozzle holes (their carbonizations). The obtained results allowed selecting the diagnosis symptoms, useful in detecting these faults in the injection system, from the characteristics of heat release: net heat release (Q) and intensity of heat release (q). The object of the research was typical marine medium speed engine Sulzer A25/30.
The article describes the test results of the uniqueness of the work cycle of two-cylinder internal combustion piston FIAT 0.9 TwinAir engine, while being powered by 95 octane petrol fuel and LPG gas. The engine was working according to load characteristics. The engine mounted on the test bench was equipped with a sequential LPG gas fuel supply system. The gas fuels differ significantly from the petrol fuels in their physiochemical properties. In order to rationally utilize gas fuels to power internal combustion engines, the knowledge about basic fuel burning process of these fuels is required. The article shows the analysis of individual engine work cycles of the technologically advanced engine in order to evaluate the influence of powering by LPG gas fuel on the rate of uniqueness of its work cycles. The measure of uniqueness of the inter-cylinder processes are the work cycle uniqueness indicators, which are as follows: the maximum work cycle pressure uniqueness indicator, the average measured work cycle pressure uniqueness indicator, the measured pressure work cycle graph uniqueness indicator and the measured pressure work cycle partial graph uniqueness. The carried out research and its analysis has shown that powering the engine with LPG gas has an influence on the engine work cycles and its uniqueness. The burning process of the mixture consisting of air and LPG gas is quicker, which has an effect on the higher speed of pressure increase rate in comparison with the engine being powered by petrol fuel. Achieved maximum in-cylinder pressure values while the engine was powered by LPG gas were higher in comparison with it being fuelled with conventional fuel. This causes an increase of the gas lads on crank-piston system, which are influencing directly the piston with higher heat load, and the thermal load of the engine.
Modern means of transport are basically powered by piston internal combustion engines. Increasingly rigorous demands are placed on IC engines in order to minimise the detrimental impact they have on the natural environment. That stimulates the development of research on piston internal combustion engines. The research involves experimental and theoretical investigations carried out using computer technologies. While being filled, the cylinder is considered to be an open thermodynamic system, in which non-stationary processes occur. To make calculations of thermodynamic parameters of the engine operating cycle, based on the comparison of cycles, it is necessary to know the mean constant value of cylinder pressure throughout this process. Because of the character of in-cylinder pressure pattern and difficulties in pressure experimental determination, in the present paper, a novel method for the determination of this quantity was presented. In the new approach, the iteration method was used. In the method developed for determining the volumetric efficiency, the following equations were employed: the law of conservation of the amount of substance, the first law of thermodynamics for open system, dependences for changes in the cylinder volume vs. the crankshaft rotation angle, and the state equation. The results of calculations performed with this method were validated by means of experimental investigations carried out for a selected engine at the engine test bench. A satisfactory congruence of computational and experimental results as regards determining the volumetric efficiency was obtained. The method for determining the volumetric efficiency presented in the paper can be used to investigate the processes taking place in the cylinder of an IC engine.
nr 3, Gdynia 1991.  Polanowski S.: Studium metod analizy wykresów indykatorowych w aspekcie diagnostyki silników okrętowych. Zeszyty naukowe AMW nr 109A, Gdynia 2007.  Pawletko R., Polanowski S.: Acquisition of diagnostic information from the indicatordiagrams of marine engines using the electronic indicators. Journal of KONES, Vol. 18, No.3, Warsaw 2011.
In the article, the problems of selected failures that may occur during operation of positive displacement compressors and possible reasons for their occurrence were described. It also included methods for checking performance and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on research using an electronic indicator. Possible mechanical damages of air compressors for various applications have also been characterized. Non-destructive diagnostic methods were described to detect and diagnose damage, taking into account their suitability and limitations in their application. In the further part of the article selected tests results of air compressor, specially adapted to simulation of failures were presented. The test stand has been equipped with sensors for measuring the pressure and temperature of the compressed gas and the sensor of the angular position of the compressor shaft, allowing examining the impact of damage on compressor working parameters. The result of the research was to compare the compressor indicator diagrams in the operational condition, with the simulated failure, and between different failures and to learn the changes of processes taking place inside the cylinder during the compressor’s work cycle. All the test results could be observed in real time, besides the diagnostic software, supporting the tests, made it possible to record measurements. In the described software, it is possible to compare the courses for different cases, to then make a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the state of functional and simulated disability.
, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 355-364, Warsaw 2011.  Polanowski, S., Pawletko, R., Acquisition of diagnostic information from the indicatordiagrams of marine engines using the electronic indicators, Journal of KONES, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 359-366, Warsaw 2011.  Pawletko, R., Polanowski, S., Research of the influence of marine diesel engine Sulzer AL 25/30 load on the TDC position on the indication graph. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 361-368, Warsaw 2010.  Polanowski, S., Pawletko, R., Application of multiple moving approximation
Combustion, Pittsburgh: The Combustion Institute. Pawletko R. and Polanowski S. (2012). Influence of gas channels of medium speed marine engines on the accuracy of determination of diagnostic parameters based on the indicatordiagrams, Journal of Polish CIMAC. 7-2: pp. 139-146. Pawletko, R. and Polanowski, S. (2010). Research of the influence of Marine diesel engine Sulzer AL. 25/30 load on TDC position on the indication graph, Journal of KONES, Vol. 17, No. 3. Rakopoulos C.D., Antonopoulos K.A., Rakopoulos D.C.(2006). Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray