) investigated the impact of migration on food expenditure and food security of left-behind households in the eastern region of Indonesia. They found positive effects of migration on food expenditure and food security. Finally, Nguyen and Purnamasari (2011) find a reduction in child labor supply and an increase in children’s idletime in sending households with female migrants. This study is therefore the earliest attempt at quantifying the effect of parental migration for work on the health of left-behind children in the Indonesian context.
In contrast to many other