Aleksandra Luwańska, Aleksandra Perz, Grażyna Mańkowska and Karolina Wielgus
. Ind. Crops Prod 2012; 37(1):111-117.
4. Kinghorn AD. Biologically active compounds from plants with reputed medicinal and sweetening properties. J Nat Prod 1987; 50(6):1009-1024.
5. Brusick DJ. A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(7):S83-S91.
6. Ibrahim IA, Nasr MI, Mohammed BR, El-Zefzafi MM. Nutrient factors affecting in vitro cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana. Sugar Tech 2008; 10(3):248-253.
7. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of long term consumption of ethanolic fraction of Neurocalyx calycinus leaves (NCEF) in rodents. The NCEF was subjected to detect the presence of various phytoconstituents. In acute oral toxicity study, graded doses of NCEF was administered in mice and were observed up to 14 days. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, NCEF was administered to Wistar rats at doses of 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. per day for 90 days and after that, observed up to 28 days. NCEF showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolics and glycosides. In acute toxicity study, there was no mortality and no behavioural signs of toxicity at the highest dose level (6400 mg/kg b.w.). In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, there were no significant difference observed in the consumption of food and water, body weight and relative organ weights. Haematological, serum biochemical, hepatic oxidative stress marker analysis and urine analysis revealed the non-adverse effects of prolonged oral consumption of NCEF. The histopatho-logic examination did not show any differences in vital organs. Based on our findings, NCEF, at dosage levels up to 1000 mg/kg b.w., is non-toxic and safe for long term oral consumption.
). Bisphenol A induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress in rat model. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012 : 194829.
Hess RA, de Franca LR. (2009). Spermatogenesis and cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. In Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis . Springer New York. 1–15
Iacobazzi V, Infantino V. (2014). Citrate–new functions for an old metabolite. Biol Chem 395 (4): 387–399.
Jourdian GW, Dean L, Roseman S. (1971). The sialic acids XI. A periodate-resorcinol method for the quantitative estimation of free sialic acids and their glycosides. J Biol Chem
Jitka Křížková, Kamila Burdová, Marie Stiborová, Vladimír Křen and Petr Hodek
). Comparative effects of flavonoids and model inducers on drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Toxicology 114 : 19-27.
Ciolino HP, Daschner PJ and Yeh GC. (1999). Dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor that affect CYP1A1 transcription differentially. Biochem J 340 : 715-722.
Day AJ, DuPont MS, Ridley S, Rhodes M, Rhodes MJ, Morgan MR and Williamson G. (1998). Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver beta
Samuel O. Onoja, Gloria Daniel-Igwe, Emmanuel Ejiofor, Christiana C. Mbakwe, Ugochuhwu S. Okeke, Maxwell I. Ezeja, Yusuf N. Omeh and Isaac U. Asuzu
13. Lunga PK, Qin XJ, Yang XW, Kuiate JR, Du ZZ, Gatsing D. A new antimicrobial and radical-scavenging glycoside from Paullinia pinnata var. cameroonensis. Nat Prod Res. 2015;29:1688-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.996756
14. Abourashed EA, Toyang NJ, Choinski J, Khan IA: Two new flavone glycosides from Paullinia pinnata . J Nat Prod. 1999;62:1179-81. https://doi.org/10.1021/np990063z
15. National Research Council. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals . National Academies Press;2010. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12910.html
Ivana Milackova, Lucia Kovacikova, Miroslav Veverka, Ján Gallovic and Milan Stefek
Amić D, Davidović-Amić D, Beslo D, Rastija V, Lucić B, Trinajstić N. (2007). SAR and QSAR of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Curr Med Chem 14 : 827-845.
Arts IC, Sesink AL, Faassen-Peters M, Hollman PC. (2004). The type of sugar moiety is a major determinant of the small intestinal uptake and subsequent biliary excretion of dietary quercetin glycosides. Br J Nutr 91 : 841-847.
BischoffSC. (2008). Quercetin: potentials in the prevention and therapy of disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr
small intestinal uptake and subsequent biliary excretion of dietary quercetin glycosides. Br J Nutr 91 : 841-847.
Baynes JW. (1991). Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes 40 : 405-12. Review.
Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. (1999). Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new perspective on an old paradigm. Diabetes 48 : 1-9. Review.
Beaulieu LP, Harris CS, Saleem A, Cuerrier A, Haddad PS, Martineau LC, Bennett SA, Arnason JT. (2010
Olufunsho Awodele, Kennedy Iliya Amagon, John Agbo and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
species of Actinidiaceae from Colombia. Brittonia 41 (1): 28–31.
Sonhi YR. (2002). The toxicity of Callilepsis laureola , a South Africa traditional herbal medecine. Clinical Biochemistry 35 : 499–508.
Srilaxmi P, Sareddy GR, Kishor PBK, Setty OH, Babu PP. (2010). Protective efficacy of natansnin, a dibenzoyl glycoside from Salvinia natans against CCl 4 induced oxidative stress and cellular degeneration in rat liver. BMC Pharmacol 10 : 1471–2210.
Sun M, Zigman S. (1978). Determination of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes using the
ammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 286: 53-63.
Magalingam KB, Radhakrishnan A, Haleagrahara N. (2016). Protective eff ects of quercetin glycosides, rutin, and isoquercetrin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 29: 30-9.
Martin-Aragon S, Jimenez-Aliaga KL, Benedi J, Bermejo-Bescos P. (2016). Neurohormetic responses of quercetin and rutin in a cell line over-expressing the amyloid precursor protein (APPswe cells
to necrosis and apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304 : 463-470.
Klejdus B, Mikelova R, Petrlova J, Potesil D, Adam V, Stiborova M, Hodek P, Vacek J, Kizek R and Kuban V. (2005). Evaluation of isoflavone aglycon and glycoside distribution in soy plants and soybeans by fast column high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector. J Agric Food Chem 53 : 5848-5852.
Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Järvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A, Hakulinen T and Aromaa A. (2002). Flavonoid