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Caucasian blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) and bilberry (V. myrtillus L.), both native to Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolics (TP) and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. Individual compositions of free phenolic acids and phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Berry extracts of each species were separated into three different fractions (sugar/acid, polyphenolic and anthocyanin) by solid phase extraction (SPE). The anthocyanin fractions of each species had the highest level of TP and TAC contents and ORAC values. Each species contained 10 phenolic acids representing each fraction, but in different quantities. The phenolic acids liberated from the esters and glycoside forms were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. The fractions containing phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms had a higher antioxidant capacity than that from free phenolic acids. The data suggest that both berries have potential as good dietary sources of phenolic antioxidants.
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Content of selected biologically active compounds in tea infusions of widely used European medicinal plants
Herbal tea infusions are a very important source of flavonoids and other biologically active compounds in human medicine and nutrition. Melissa officinalis, Agrimonia eupatoria, Sambucus nigra, Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Betula pendula and Glechoma hederacea were selected as common European medicinal herbs and sources for tea infusion preparations. Quercetin, rutin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and squalene were determined in the prepared infusions. Free quercetin was not found in any of the infusions, but tea infusions did contain rutin and other quercetin glycosides, the content of which was, after acid hydrolysis, determined as quercetin. The highest levels of total quercetin were found in infusions from Filipendula ulmaria and Sambucus nigra (120 and 108 mg L-1, respectively) corresponding to the content of rutin found also in these two infusions (25.2 and 194 mg L-1, respectively). The Sambucus nigra infusion contained the largest content of chlorogenic acid (166 mg L-1), and infusions from Melissa officinalis, Agrimonia eupatoria, Betula pendula and Glechoma hederacea contained only small amounts of squalene.
Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanin Content Profile in ‘Bluecrop’ Blueberry Fruit
Mature ‘Bluecrop’ berries, with no visible damage on the fruit surface, were picked by hand and placed in a common cold storage (as control) and under CA conditions consisting of 8 different CO2:O2 ratios (12:1.5, 12:3, 12:6, 12:12 and 18:1.5, 18:3, 18:6, 18:12) at 0°C. HPLC was used to separate and determine individual anthocyanin compounds in blueberry fruit. ‘Bluecrop’ blueberries contained 14 anthocyanins: glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvidin all with sugar bound at the 3-position. Generally, the content of anthocyanin compounds in fruit was the highest after 2 or 4-week storage. Total anthocyanin content was significantly higher in berries stored under CA condition, especially under low oxygen concentration, as compared with those placed in common cold storage, and CO2 concentration does not have any effect. Antioxidant activity strongly correlated with total anthocyanin content, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-galactoside and with firmness, but slightly correlated with soluble solids and titratable acidity.
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