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Application of in vitro stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) cultures in obtaining steviol glycoside rich material

. Ind. Crops Prod 2012; 37(1):111-117. 4. Kinghorn AD. Biologically active compounds from plants with reputed medicinal and sweetening properties. J Nat Prod 1987; 50(6):1009-1024. 5. Brusick DJ. A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(7):S83-S91. 6. Ibrahim IA, Nasr MI, Mohammed BR, El-Zefzafi MM. Nutrient factors affecting in vitro cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana. Sugar Tech 2008; 10(3):248-253. 7. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food

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Taxonomic importance of seed morphology of Veronica L. subsect. Agrestes Benth. (Plantaginaceae)

.1055/s-2004-830330 T okarska -G uzik B., D ajdok Z., Z ając M., Z ając A., U rbisz A., D anielewicz W. & H ołdyński C z . 2012. Rośliny obcego pochodzenia w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunków inwazyjnych. 196 pp. Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa. T omas -B arberan F. A., G rayer -B erkmeijer R. J., G ill M. I. & H arborne J. B. 1988. Distribution of 6-hydroxy-, 6-methoxy- and 8-hydroxyflavone glycosides in the Labiatae, the Scrophulariaceae and related families. Phytochemistry 27: 2631-2645. http://dx.doi.org/10

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Evaluation of the Nematicidal and Antifungal Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Moringa oleifera Leaves and Seed in Cucumber Field

Abstract

This aim of the two-year study was to evaluate the nematicidal and antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera extracts against Meloidogyne incognita and fungi infestation in cucumber field. The aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds of M. oleifera were used to treat the plants. The findings of the present study revealed that the plant extracts were active against the test pathogens. All treated plants were significantly higher than the control with respect to number of leaves and branches, vine length, fruit weight, and yield. Of the two varieties of cucumber used, combination of cucumber market with moringa aqueous leaf extracts gave higher results. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins. These possess nematicidal and antifungal activities. Combination of variety 2, Market More with Moringa leaves aqueous extract is being recommended to farmers for management of nematode and fungal diseases. Organic amendments have the advantage of controlling environmental effluence.

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Chemical composition and antifungal potential of medicinal plants against seedborne mycoflora of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

References Abd-Alla, M. F., El-Negoumy, S. I., El-Lakany, M. H., Saleh, N. A. M., 1980: Flavonoid glycosides and the chemosystematics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Phytochemistry 19, 2629-2632. Alberts, J. F., Engelbrecht, Y., Steyn, P. S., Holzapfel, W. H., Vanzyl, W. H., 2006: Biological degradation of afl atoxin B1 by Rhodococcus erythropolis cultures. International Journal of Food Microbiology 109, 121-126. Ali, M., Ashfaq, M., Akram, W., Sahi, S. T., Ali, A., 2012: The physio- morphic characters of the

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Phytonutrients in Oat (Avena sativa L.) Drink: Effect of Plant Extract on Antiradical Capacity, Nutritional Value and Sensory Characteristics

., Elfalleh W., Hannachi H., Ferchichi A., Da Graca Campos M., Identification and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonol glycosides in Tunisian Morus species by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. J. Funct. Foods, 2012, 4, 367–374. 49. Vichasilp C., Nakagawa K., Sookwong P., Higuchi O., Luemunkong S., Miyazawa T., Development of high 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content mulberry tea and use of response surface methodology to optimize tea-making conditions for highest DNJ extraction. LWT – Food Sci. Technol., 2012, 45, 226–232. 50. Yen G.C., Chen H.Y., Antioxidant

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The Survey of Sea Cucumber Fisheries on Qeshm Island Coasts (Persian Gulf)

References 1. Alexandra S., Silchenko S., Avilov A., Alexander S., Antonov S., Anatoly I., Kalinovsky P., Dmitrenok S., Vladimir I., Kalinin V., Stonik A., Woodward C. and Collin P. D., 2005 - Glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. III. Structure of frondosides A2-1, A2-2, A2-3, and A2-6, four new minor monosulfated triterpene glycosides, Canadian Journal of Chemistry , 83, 21-27. 2. Al-Rashdi K. M., Al-Busaidi S. S. and Al-Rassadi I. H., 2007a - Status of the sea cucumber fishery in the Sultanate of Oman

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Allelopathic Effects of Winter Legumes on Germination and Seedling Indicators of Various Summer Cereals

References Abdul-Rahman Aa, Habib Sa (1989): Allelopathic effect of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) on blady grass ( Imperatacylindrica ). Journal of Chemical Ecology 15 (9): 2289-2300. Association of Official Seed Analysis. (1983): Seed Vigor Testing Handbook. Contribution No. 32 to the Handbook on Seed Testing. Bialy Z, Oleszek W, Lewis J, Fenwick GR (1990): Allelopathic potential of glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) and their degradation products against wheat. Plant and Soil 129: 277

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Udp-Glycosyltransferases of Plant Hormones

Summary

UDP-glycosyltransferases (GTases, UGT) catalyze the transfer of the sugar moiety from the uridine-diphosphate-activated monosaccharide (e.g. uridine-diphosphate-5’-glucose, UDPG) molecule to the specific acceptor. Glycosides contain aglycons attached by a β-glycosidic bond to C1 of the saccharide moiety. Glycosylation is one of the mechanisms maintaining cellular homeostasis through the regulation of the level, biological activity, and subcellular distribution of the glycosylated compounds. The glycosides play various functions in plant cells, such as high-energy donors, or signalling molecules, and are involved in biosynthesis of cell walls. Plant cells exhibit structural and functional diversity of UGT proteins. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains more than 100 genes encoding GTases, which belong to 91 families, and are deposited in the CAZY (Carbohydrate Active enzyme) database (www. cazy.org/GlycosylTransferases.html). The largest UGT1 class is divided into 14 subfamilies (A-N), and includes proteins containing highly conserved 44-amino acid PSPG (Plant Secondary Product Glycosyltransferase) motif at the C-terminus. The PSPG motif is involved in the binding of UDP-sugar donors to the enzyme. UGT1’s catalyze the biosynthesis of both ester-type and ether-type conjugates of plant hormones (phytohormones). Conjugation of the phytohormones is an important mechanism that regulates the concentration of physiological active hormone levels during growth and development of plants. Glycoconjugation of phytohormones is widespread in the plant kingdom and all known phytohormones are able to form these conjugates. Most plant hormone conjugates do not indicate physiological activity, but rather are involved in transport, storage and degradation of the phytohormones. UDPG-dependent glycosyltransferases possess high substrate specificity, even within a given class of phytohormones. In many cases, the phenotype of plants is strongly affected by loss-of-function mutations in UGT genes. In this paper, advances in the isolation and characterization of glycosyltransferases of all plant hormones: auxin, brassinosteroids, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, jasmonates, and salicylate is described

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The effect of 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin on the stability of polyphenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts in a natural low-transition temperature mixture

determination of flavonoids with response surface methodology optimization. J. Chrom. A 1285: 22-30. Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Güçlü K, Apak R (2015) Antioxidant capacity of quercetin and its glycosides in the presence of β -cyclodextrins: influence of glycosylation on inclusion complexation. J. Inclus. Phenom. Macrocycl. Chem. 83: 309-319. Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Tufan AN, Güçlü K, Apak R (2011) Spectroscopic study and antioxidant properties of the inclusion complexes of rosmarinic acid with natural and derivative cyclodextrins. Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol

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Comparison of Phenolics and Phenolic Acid Profiles in Conjunction with Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity (ORAC) in Berries of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and V. myrtillus L.

Abstract

Caucasian blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) and bilberry (V. myrtillus L.), both native to Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolics (TP) and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. Individual compositions of free phenolic acids and phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Berry extracts of each species were separated into three different fractions (sugar/acid, polyphenolic and anthocyanin) by solid phase extraction (SPE). The anthocyanin fractions of each species had the highest level of TP and TAC contents and ORAC values. Each species contained 10 phenolic acids representing each fraction, but in different quantities. The phenolic acids liberated from the esters and glycoside forms were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. The fractions containing phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms had a higher antioxidant capacity than that from free phenolic acids. The data suggest that both berries have potential as good dietary sources of phenolic antioxidants.

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