Aleksandra Luwańska, Aleksandra Perz, Grażyna Mańkowska and Karolina Wielgus
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Małgorzata Mazur, Magdalena Gawlak, Elżbieta Sandurska, Tomasz Kałuski and Katarzyna Marcysiak
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M.C. Olajide, N.B. Izuogu, R.A. Apalowo and H.S. Baba
This aim of the two-year study was to evaluate the nematicidal and antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera extracts against Meloidogyne incognita and fungi infestation in cucumber field. The aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds of M. oleifera were used to treat the plants. The findings of the present study revealed that the plant extracts were active against the test pathogens. All treated plants were significantly higher than the control with respect to number of leaves and branches, vine length, fruit weight, and yield. Of the two varieties of cucumber used, combination of cucumber market with moringa aqueous leaf extracts gave higher results. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins. These possess nematicidal and antifungal activities. Combination of variety 2, Market More with Moringa leaves aqueous extract is being recommended to farmers for management of nematode and fungal diseases. Organic amendments have the advantage of controlling environmental effluence.
Bushra Ashiq, Sobia Chohan, Rashida Perveen, Muhammad Abid and Mirza Abid Mehmood
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Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Dominik Kmiecik, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Anna Żywica, Krzysztof Dziedzic and Anna Brzozowska
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50. Yen G.C., Chen H.Y., Antioxidant
Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Amin Mokhleci and Kazem Darvish Bastami
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Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Kashif Ijaz, Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Tahir and Muhammad Ather Nadeem
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UDP-glycosyltransferases (GTases, UGT) catalyze the transfer of the sugar moiety from the uridine-diphosphate-activated monosaccharide (e.g. uridine-diphosphate-5’-glucose, UDPG) molecule to the specific acceptor. Glycosides contain aglycons attached by a β-glycosidic bond to C1 of the saccharide moiety. Glycosylation is one of the mechanisms maintaining cellular homeostasis through the regulation of the level, biological activity, and subcellular distribution of the glycosylated compounds. The glycosides play various functions in plant cells, such as high-energy donors, or signalling molecules, and are involved in biosynthesis of cell walls. Plant cells exhibit structural and functional diversity of UGT proteins. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains more than 100 genes encoding GTases, which belong to 91 families, and are deposited in the CAZY (Carbohydrate Active enzyme) database (www. cazy.org/GlycosylTransferases.html). The largest UGT1 class is divided into 14 subfamilies (A-N), and includes proteins containing highly conserved 44-amino acid PSPG (Plant Secondary Product Glycosyltransferase) motif at the C-terminus. The PSPG motif is involved in the binding of UDP-sugar donors to the enzyme. UGT1’s catalyze the biosynthesis of both ester-type and ether-type conjugates of plant hormones (phytohormones). Conjugation of the phytohormones is an important mechanism that regulates the concentration of physiological active hormone levels during growth and development of plants. Glycoconjugation of phytohormones is widespread in the plant kingdom and all known phytohormones are able to form these conjugates. Most plant hormone conjugates do not indicate physiological activity, but rather are involved in transport, storage and degradation of the phytohormones. UDPG-dependent glycosyltransferases possess high substrate specificity, even within a given class of phytohormones. In many cases, the phenotype of plants is strongly affected by loss-of-function mutations in UGT genes. In this paper, advances in the isolation and characterization of glycosyltransferases of all plant hormones: auxin, brassinosteroids, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, jasmonates, and salicylate is described
Ioanna Karageorgou, Spyros Grigorakis, Stavros Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
determination of flavonoids with response surface methodology optimization. J. Chrom. A 1285: 22-30.
Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Güçlü K, Apak R (2015) Antioxidant capacity of quercetin and its glycosides in the presence of β -cyclodextrins: influence of glycosylation on inclusion complexation. J. Inclus. Phenom. Macrocycl. Chem. 83: 309-319.
Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Tufan AN, Güçlü K, Apak R (2011) Spectroscopic study and antioxidant properties of the inclusion complexes of rosmarinic acid with natural and derivative cyclodextrins. Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol
Nesrin Colak, Hülya Torun, Jiri Gruz, Miroslav Strnad, Michaela Subrtova, Huseyin Inceer and Faik Ahmet Ayaz
Caucasian blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) and bilberry (V. myrtillus L.), both native to Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolics (TP) and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. Individual compositions of free phenolic acids and phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Berry extracts of each species were separated into three different fractions (sugar/acid, polyphenolic and anthocyanin) by solid phase extraction (SPE). The anthocyanin fractions of each species had the highest level of TP and TAC contents and ORAC values. Each species contained 10 phenolic acids representing each fraction, but in different quantities. The phenolic acids liberated from the esters and glycoside forms were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. The fractions containing phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms had a higher antioxidant capacity than that from free phenolic acids. The data suggest that both berries have potential as good dietary sources of phenolic antioxidants.