Birch and maple saps contain carbohydrates and organic acids, B complex vitamins and vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and mineral substances. The aim of the study was to quantitatively determine the concentrations of bioactive compounds and mineral substances in Latvian birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) saps. Electrical conductivity was determined (629 and 967 S/cm in birch and maple saps, respectively) to characterise the total amount of mineral substances. In birch and maple saps the titratable acidity (0.50 and 0.70 mmol of NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) and formol number (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) were determined. The protein concentration was found to be higher in maple sap (171 and 127 mg/l, respectively). The antioxidant concentration, determined using quercetin as a standard, was 0.35 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/l in birch sap and 0.77 mg QE/l in maple sap. In conclusion, Latvian maple sap contains more bioactive and mineral compounds than birch sap. Latvian birch sap contains up to 20% more glucose and fructose than birch sap produced in Finland, but Latvian maple sap contains 10 to 40% less sucrose than sap produced in North America.
Inese Mierina, Rasma Seržaneļ, Maija Strele, Jūlija Moskaļuka, Elga Ivdre and Māra Jure
Ballhorn, D. J. (2011). Cyanogenic glycosides in nuts and seeds. In: Preedy, V. R., Watson, R. R., Patel, V. B. (eds.). Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st edn.) (pp. 129-136). London, Burlington, San Diego: Academic Press.
Barceloux, D. G. (2009). Cyanogenic foods (cassava, fruit kernels, and cycad seeds). Dis.-a-Mon ., 55 (6), 336-352.
Deineka, V. I., Deineka, L. A. (2004). Type composition of triglycerides from seed oils. II. Triglycerides from certain cultivated
Gaļina Zvaigzne, Daina Kārkliņa, Joerg-Thomas Moersel, Sasha Kuehn, Inta Krasnova and Dalija Segliņa
., Vicario, I. M., Heredia, F. J. (2007). Provitamin A carotenoids and ascorbic acid contents of the different types of orange juices marketed in Spain. Food Chem., 101 (1), 177–184.
Mouly, P., Gaydou E. M., Auffray, A. (1998). Simultaneous separation of flavanone glycosides and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus juices using liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. , 800 (2), 171–179.
Omidbaigi, R., Nasiri, M. F., Sadr, Z. B., Kock, O. (2004). Hesperidin in citrus species, quantitative distribution during fruit maturation and optimal harvesting time. Nat
Šimons Svirskis, Linda Klimavičiusa and Zane Dzirkale
). Chronic stress-mutated presenilin 1 gene interaction perturbs neurogenesis and accelerates neurodegeneration. Exper. Neurol ., 221 , 175–185.
Lu, Z. (1997). Scientific Qigong Exploration. The Wonders and Mysteries of Qi . Amber Leaf Press, Malvern, PA. 404 pp.
Luo, L. (2016). Chapter 6. Olfaction, Taste, Audition, and Somatosensation. In: Luo, L. (Ed.). Princ. Neurobiol . Taylor & Francis Group Publ., Garland Science, New York, pp. 207–275.
Mao, Q.-Q., Xian, Y.-F., Ip, S.-P., Tsai, S.-H., Che, C.-T. (2010). Long-term treatment with peony glycosides
Cholesterol-4-14C and b-sitosterol-4-14C were incorporated into cigarettes and their presence in mainstream smoke was studied. The transfer of 14C-labelled cholesterol to mainstream smoke was 20.27 %, of which 16.25 % was in trapped smoke condensates and 4.02 % in butts; only 0.004 % was in ashes. The transfer of 14C-labelled b-sitosterol to mainstream smoke was 16.20 %, of which 13.11 % was in trapped smoke condensates and 3.09 % in butts; only 0.007 % was in ashes. The relative composition of free sterols, steryl esters, and bound glycosides in cigarette tobacco and in trapped smoke condensates was also studied. Fractions of free sterols and steryl glycosides were higher while fraction of esters was lower in trapped smoke condensates as compared to cigarette tobacco. Comparison of four individual sterols (cholesteroI, campesterol, stigmasterol and b-sitosterol) was studied in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke (smoke condensates, butts, wrapping papers from butts). A slight increase of cholesterol was noted in smoke condensates and wrapping papers from butts.
1.the plant phenols occurring in tobacco leaves, and 2.the phenols of tobacco smoke. These constituents are summarized in
2 tables. The leaf contains mainly quinic acid esters of hydroxy-cinnamic acids (chlorogenic acids), flavonol-glycosides, and hydroxy-coumarins. Main constituents are chlorogenic acid and rutin. Tobacco smoke does not contain these compounds, but a number of simpler phenols and phenol ethers, and phenolic acids. Besides this paper describes the transformation of plant phenols by the curing of tobacco, such as the formation of brown complex products from chlorogenic acid and rutin. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of plant phenols, their importance for the quality of tobacco, their phytopathological importance, and the effect of phenols occurring in tobacco leaves and tobacco smoke on the human organism are shortly reviewed
— Monographs in lipid research, Plenum Press, New York and London, 1974, Vol. 1, pp. 151—174.
7. Dymicky, M., and R. L. S ted man: Composition studies on tobacco, IV, Ergosterol, y-sitosterol and a partially characterized steroidal glycoside from flue-cured leaves; Tob. Sci. 3 (1959) 4—8 and references therein.
8. Tancogne, J.: Phytosterols in French dark tobaccos — A study of their evolution in the plant and during smoking; Ann. Tab. (Section 2) 18 (1983—1984) 5-91.
9. Elks, J.: Studies in the
M Haas, P Schröder, D Komoßa, H Sandermann and RG May
celi wali raetabolites by the white-rot fungus Pharterochaete cbrysospońum; J. Agric. Food Chem. 45 (1997) 1911-1915.
16. Overend, W.G.: Glycosides; in: The Carbohydrates. Chemistry and Biochemistry, edited by W. Pigmann and D. Horton, Academic Press, New York, 1972, pp. 279-353.
17. Sandermann, H. Jr., T. J. Mmick and P.W. Asch-bacher: Animal bioavailability of a 3,4-dtchloro-aniline-lignin metabolite fraction from wheat; J. Agric. Food Chem. 40 (1992) 2001-2007.
18. Kirk, TJL and R
John R. Shifflett, Leah Watson, Devin J. McNally and Dawit Z. Bezabeh
Glycosides Using Negative Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry; J. Mass Spectrom. 38 (2003) 43–49. DOI: 10.1002/jms.398
24. Sánchez-Rabaneda, F., O. Jáuregui, I. Casals, C. Andrés-Lacueva, M. Izquierdo-Pulido, and R.M. Lamuela-Raventós: Liquid Chromatographic/Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Study of the Phenolic Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao); J. Mass Spectrom. 38 (2003) 35–42. DOI: 10.1002/jms.395
25. Dawa, Z., Y. Zhou, Y. Bai, S. Gesang, J. Liang, and L. Ding: Analysis of Saussurea Species from Tibet Using HPLC
. Organic gas-phase products from D-glucose and sucrose; Carbohydrate Res. 17 (1971) 335-339.
6. Glycyrrhizic acid, Item 4515, C 42 H 82 O 16 , mol. wt. 822.94, is listed alternatively not only as glycyrrhizin but also as the glycoside of glycyrrhetinic acid; Merck Index, 12 th Edition, 1996, p. 767; its CAS RN for glycyrrhizic acid is listed as 1405-86-3; Merck Index, 12 th Edition, 1996, REG-26.
7. Synonyms for (3p,20p)-20-carboxy-11-oxo-30-norolean-12-en-3-yl 2- O -P