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Fertility after the Operation of Cryptorchism in Childhood

. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2012; 88: 910-919. 15. Mano R, Livne PM, Nevo A, Sivan B, Ben-Meir D. Testicular torsion in the first year of life – characteristics and treatment outcome. Urology 2013; 82: 1132-7. 16. Kollin C, Stukenborg JB, Nurmio M et al: Boys with undescended testes: endocrine, volumetric and morphometric studies on testicular function before and after orchidopexy at nine months or three years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: 4588. 17. Moursy EE, Gamal W and Hussein MM: Laparoscopic orchiopexy for non

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The Association between Various Lifestyle Patterns and the Body Mass Index in Adolescents

communication technology (ICT) and perceived health in adolescence: The role of sleeping habits and waking-time tiredness. J. Adolesc. 2007;30:569–585. 29. Akhter N. Relationship between internet addiction and academic performance among university undergraduates. Edu. Res. Rev. 2013;8:1793. 30. Straker L, Pollock C, Maslen B. Principles for the wise use of computers by children. Ergonomics. 2009;52:1386–1401. 31. Pontes HM, Kiraly O, Demetrovics Z, et al. The conceptualization and measurement of DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder: The development of the IGD-20

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Clinical Characteristics of Ulceroglandular Tularemia in Two Bulgarian Regions, 2014-2015: a Report of Five Cases

Abstract

We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015). They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years). Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals. One man marked agricultural work and contact with straw stems. After a mean incubation period of 4.8±1.4 days ulcers appeared, followed by local painful lymphadenitis. All patients presented with liver enlargement and elevation in acute phase reactants. The etiological diagnosis was made by tube agglutination test in all cases, PCR positive result was found in one. The administered antibacterial treatment was a combination of aminoglycosides and 4-quinolones with the outcome being favorable for all patients. The current report suggests presence of Francisella tularensis in South Bulgaria.

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Risk Factors for Injuries in Professional Football Players / Факторы Риска Получения Травм Профессиональными Футболистами

Abstract

AIM: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. RESULTS: Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p < 0.01), age (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.49-2.81, p < 0.01) and a previous injury (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.14-9.07, p < 0.01) were significantly correlated to increased risk of injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. CONCLUSION: The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.

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The Prevalence of Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Renal Impairment

References 1. Das P, Holt S. Liver disease and renal dysfunction. Systemic disease and the kidney. 2011;492-495. 2. Francoz C, Glotz D, Moreau R, Durand F. The evaluation of renal function and disease in patients with cirrhosis”. Journal of Hepatology. 2010;52:605-613. 3. Didier S. MELD-Na as a prognostic score for cirrhotic patients: hyponatremia and ascites are back in the game. Journal of Hepatology. 2009;50:836-841. 4. Singai AK, Kamath PS. Model for End-stage Disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental hepatology. 2012

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Medical Students’ Acceptance of Online Assessment Systems

References 1. Wang TH.Implementation of Web-based dynamic assessment in facilitating junior high school students to learn mathematics.Computers & Education. 2011;56:1062-1071. 2. Wang TH. Web-based dynamic assessment: Taking assessment as teaching and learning strategy for improving students’ e-learning effectiveness. Computers & Education. 2010;54:1157-1166. 3. Wang TH. Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment: Development and evaluation. Computers & Education. 2008;51:1247-1263. 4. Llamas

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Romanian young people’s drinking habits

S, Graham K, Purcell J. Policy implications of the widespread practice of “pre-drinking” or “pre-gaming” before going to public drinking establishments-are current prevention strategies backfiring?. Addiction. 2009;104:4-9. 13. Plant MA, Plant ML, Miller P, Gmel G, Kuntsche S. The social consequences of binge drinking: a comparison of young adults in six European countries. J Addict Dis. 2009;28: 294-308. 14. Lewis K, Kaufman J, Christakis N. The taste for privacy: an analysis of college student privacy settings in an online social

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Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Newborns with Birth Weight Less Than 1500 Grams: Risk Factors and Causes

intensive care unit. Pediatr Neonatol. 2013; 54(5): 303-8. 12. Mahfouz AA, Al-Azraqi TA, Abbag FI, Al-Gamal MN, Seef S, Bello CS. Nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in south-western Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2010; 16(1): 40-4. 13. Orsi GB, d’Ettorre G, Panero A, Chiarini F, Vullo V, Venditti M. Hospital-acquired infection surveillance in a neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2009; 37(3): 201-3. 14. Yalaz M, Altun-Köroglu O, Ulusoy B, Yıldız B, Akisu M, Vardar F, et al

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The Association between Internet Addiction and Emotional Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis Study

relationship of emotional intelligence and mental disorders with internet addiction in internet users university students. AddictHealth. 2012;4:133. 19. Sanghvi H, Rai U. Internet Addiction and its relationship with Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress experienced by Young Adults. IJIP. 2015; 3:64-76. 20. Parker JD, Taylor RN, Eastabrook JM et al. Problem gambling in adolescence: Relationships with internet misuse, gaming abuse and emotional intelligence. PersIndivid Dif. 2008;45:174-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.018 21. Maddi SR, Erwin

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Finger lengths and behavior: Is the 2D:4D index of interest in forensic medicine?

-typed behavior: methods and findings. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2005 Apr;29(2):353-84. PubMed PMID: 15811504. Epub 2005/04/07. eng. [32] Burnham TC. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers. Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society. 2007 Sep 22;274(1623):2327-30. PubMed PMID: 17613451. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC1950304. Epub 2007/07/07. eng. [33] Honekopp J, Bartholdt L, Beier L, Liebert A. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 May;32

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