Robin Ambrož, Stanislav Vacek, Zdeněk Vacek, Jan Král and Igor Štefančík
Korpeľ, Š., 1989: Pralesy Slovenska. Bratislava, Veda, 328 p.
Kumar, S., Takeda, A., Shibata, E., 2006: Effects of 13-year fencing on browsing by sika deer on seedlings on Mt. Ohdaigahara, central Japan. Journal of Forest Research, 11:337-342.
Malík, V., Karnet, P., 2007: Game damage to forest trees. Journal of Forest Science, 53:406-412.
Mayer, H., 1974: Notwendige Maßnahmen zur Lösung der Wildfrage im Schutzwaldbereich. Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 29: 51-53.
Mayer, H., Ott, E., 1991: Gebirgswaldbau
This research investigated methods for determining and quantifying the impact of wild boars on the increment and growth of forest trees and stands. The influence of wild boars on stand variables was observed in a wild game preserve established in central Slovakia in 2000 practicing intensive wild boar management. Long-term measurements obtained from two long-term research plots of sessile oak trees established in 1969 were used to monitor stand growth. Increments of trees were observed on tree ring cores coming from trees surrounded by differently damaged soil surfaces. Wild boars rooting the soil surface proved to have neither a positive nor negative influence on the mean diameter and height of the forest stands. Analysis of radial increments in 9 trees growing on sites with more intense, deeper, and permanent rooting in the soil profile located near a larger mud bath was also carried out. A more distinctive increment depression was found on one oak near the mud bath and on one beech where deeper soil surface rooting occurred.
Strategic aims and priorities of forestry and game management in Slovakia are characterised. Using current knowledge in the field, common bases for both target sectors are introduced and possibilities for harmonisation of their interests are explained. Development of mutual relationship between forestry and game management is analysed and the causes of existing discrepancies are shown. The main reason of the discrepancies is unfavourable development of ungulate game population and high damage to forests stands caused by game browsing. The final part of the paper presents the recommendations for practical measures to be taken for reaching accordance between both sectors, eventually measures for achieving the primary goal to support all-society’s interests in this field. We base our suggestions on an assumption that both forestry and game management accept the proposed measures, or more precisely the measures will be implemented through mutual collaboration and integration.
Petr Zahradník, Josef Frýdl, Vít Šrámek, Bohumír Lomský, František Havránek, Marian Slodičák, Antonín Jurásek, František Šach, Vladimír Černohous, Jindřich Neruda, Jiří Matějíček and Ivo Kupka
The Forestry and Game Management Research Institute (Czechia) was founded on 31st October 1921 with the establishment of the Forest Protection Department. In the era before and after the World War II, several more institutes were founded, and they underwent a number of reorganizations during the 1950s and finally took the form more or less corresponding with the current one. The institute went through further major changes in the early 1990s. In the 1950s, the forestry research saw dynamic development, partially also caused by a significant increase in the number of experts and finalization of the original concept of the institutional structure which covered almost all fields of forestry. Research focused on topical issues of the forest management, covering forest protection, silviculture, forest ecology, biology ad breeding of forest trees, seed growing, forest economy, forestry mechanization, forest management planning and game management. Results were provided to the forestry practice, and there also were numerous monographs and both scientific and expert articles which helped disseminate new findings. Many of these findings have been applied up to now and others built the basis for further research that has been followed on by the current generation of researchers.
Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Jiří Remeš, Igor Štefančík, Dan Bulušek and Lukáš Bílek
The paper deals with the research of structure and dynamic development of stands in National Nature Reservation Trčkov, located in Protected Landscape Area Orlické Mts. (Czech Republic). The research was carried out in spruce-beech stand with admixed fir and sycamore maple. Two permanent research plots (PRP 1 and PRP 2), for each with area of 0.25 hectare were chosen as an object of our research. FieldMap technology was used for field measurement. Compared PRP were characterized by the same typological, soil, phytocenology and stand parameters, but different method of protection against game damage. Results showed that deer is considered to be limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The tree species proportion of natural regeneration occurred in PRP 1 with fencing was sufficient, contrary to PRP 2 (outside fencing) owing to site and stand conditions. The results of biometric measurements and predicted simulation by Sibyla growth simulator showed multi-layer stand structure and productive spruce-beech stands with interspersed fir and sycamore maple. We also found depleted phase of regeneration according to frequency and tree species proportion, as well as beginning of grow up stadium, especially related to fir and sycamore proportion and/or beech and spruce. It is concluded that growth visualization and simulation confirmed the hypothesis about long-term effect of game to species, spatial and age structure and development of concerned autochthonous population.
Ambrož, R., Vacek, S., Vacek, Z., Král, J., Štefančík, I., 2015: Current and simulated structure, growth parameters and regeneration of beech forests with different game management in the Lány Game Enclosure. Lesnícky časopis - Forestry Journal, 61:78-88.
Ammer, C., 1996: Impact of ungulates on structure and dynamics of natural regeneration of mixed mountain forests in the Bavarian Alps. Forest Ecology and Management, 88:43-53.
Bauhus, J., Puettmann, K., Messier, C., 2009: Silviculture for old
Historical radial increment data based on tree ring analyses from the close-to-nature experimental forest management unit Smolnícka Osada in Central Slovakia were used for retrospective modelling of changes in forest dynamics to estimate the sensitivity of management planning goals under climate change. Four example years representing historical periods with typically different species-specific patterns of radial increment in mixed beech-fir-spruce forest (1910, 1950, 1980, and 2014) served as virtual starting points for the modelling. An advanced density-dependent matrix transition model was utilised for modelling stand dynamics. An integrated tool for nonlinear financial optimisation searched for an optimal management equilibrium. In addition to transition probabilities adjusted from increment data, some assumptions for changes in ingrowth and mortality related to the increment, as well as a case study concerning the reduced ingrowth changed by game browsing intensity, were tested for modelling more realistic historical ecological conditions. The sensitivity study revealed changes in the optimal management equilibrium represented by optimal basal area, tree species composition, diameter distribution and target harvest diameter over time due to the adapted ecological modelling. The main lesson of the past for the future is to avoid placing too much trust in the simple extrapolation of current trends, such as the observed continual decline in spruce related to climate change, but to be aware of temporal and possibly reversible processes, such as the observed extensive fir recovery after the reduction of air pollution. Tree species diversity appears to be the best option for the uncertain future.
Denisa Sedmáková, Mariana Kýpeťová, Milan Saniga, Ján Pittner, Jaroslav Vencurik, Stanislav Kucbel and Peter Jaloviar
Browsing and bark peeling by ungulates is known to affect biodiversity and may constitute the main driving factor of single tree population dynamics. In Slovakia, European yew (Taxus baccata L.) is a threatened species protected by law and present in many protected areas. In the study, we emphasize that protecting land and individual plants may not be sufficient for maintaining of yew populations, unless controlling over damage by deer game is also undertaken. Our results show that in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, browsing and bark peeling constitute the main negative factor affecting yew seedling-sapling ingrowth transition, and the mortality and vitality loss of adult yew trees. We argue that ungulates may have a larger effect on biodiversity conservation than currently realized.
Josef Frýdl, Jaroslav Dostál, František Beran, Jiří Čáp, Martin Fulín, John Frampton, Gregor Božič and Csaba Mátyás
. – C afourek , J. – N ovotný , P. (2016): Návrh změny pravidel přenosu reprodukčního materiálu jedle obrovské ( A. grandis /Douglas ex D. Con/Lindl.) z USA a Kanady [Proposal for the change of rules for grand fir ( A. grandis /Douglas ex D. Con/Lindl.) forest reproductive material transfer from the USA and Canada]. Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Strnady 136, 252 02 Jiloviste, Czech Republic, 15 pp. (in Czech)
B urzynski , G. – V anČura , K. (1985): Comparative analysis of provenance experiment with the grand fir ( Abies grandis Lindl