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. Obviously, the internet may become a game changer, over 40 per cent Arabic-speakers now enjoying some access to the web ( Arabic Speaking 2017 ; Haeri 2009 : 429).
But as yet, no net movement of any “game-changing” significance emerged, which would encourage writing in vernaculars. Most agree that printed publications should be brought out in standard Arabic, with only one-third and one-fifth of respondents agreeing that Facebook and blogs, respectively, could be written in vernacular ( Kindt and Kebede 2017 : 29-30). It is interesting to observe the tightly
speak about securitization? For Buzan et al, it represents a concept of security evoking “the moves that takes politics beyond the established rules of the game and frames the issue either as a special kind of politics or above politics” (Buzan et al 1998, 23). From this point of view, we can derive the term of securitization. For Buzan et al, securitization is a “more extremist version of politicization.” In IR, environment and security theories can be topics and issues ranging from nonpoliticized through politicized to the securitized in a straight line. The
the United States to such an extent that they may seek protection from the Russian bear (Heubusch 2011).
It would be overestimating the importance of Heubusch’s article if one considered it to be a message from the U.S. foreign policy establishment – or even from its “shadow”, conservative-Republican wing. If this had been the case, the Reagan Centennial would have amounted to a game of diplomacy toward Russia and its halo, with incumbent President Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and the Democrats playing the “good cop”, and Condoleezza Rice and the
” hard power based on coercion (force, sanctions) and inducements (payments, bribes). Soft power is a “modern” form of power based on agenda setting (institutions, diplomacy) and attraction (values, culture, ideas). Although soft power is increasingly important in the globalized and interconnected world, it does not replace hard power but rather complements it. World politics is “a three-dimensional chess game in which one can win only by playing vertically as well as horizontally” ( Nye 2004 , 4). Each of these “chessboards” is relevant in different degrees in