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Conditioning of Tobacco and Tobacco Products: The Effect of Forced Air Flow


Conditioning is a very important procedure for tobacco and tobacco products before their corresponding chemical and physical analysis. For cigarettes, forced air flow is generally required during the conditioning procedure. A special wind tunnel was designed to investigate how the forced air flow affects the conditioning of cigarettes in a constant climate laboratory. Two types of cigarettes with blended (including flue-cured and burley tobacco strands) and pure flue-cured tobacco strands were selected as test samples. It was found that the conditioning time to achieve the equilibrium could be shortened from 23 h without forced air flow to 7 h with a forced air flow rate of 2m/s. This is mainly due to the exchange of water molecules between cigarette samples and atmosphere being accelerated by applying the forced air flow. It was concluded that a 48 h conditioning period using the described forced air flow rate setup was unnecessary to attain the equilibrium for cigarettes. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 28 (2019) 224–229]

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Flow Rate Dependence of Ventilation

References 1. Mathis, D. E.: The flow rate dependence of ventilation; presented at the 38th Tobacco Chemists' Research Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 1984. 2. Norman, Velio, A. M. Ihrig, R. A. Shoffner and M. S. Ireland: The effect of tip dilution on the filtration efficiency of upstream and downstream segments of cigarette filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 12 (1984) 178-185. 3. Mathis, D. E.: Filtration efficiency in ventilated cigarettes; presented at the 36th Tobacco Chemists

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Automated Tobacco Investigation Using Flow-Injection Analysis (FIA) - AutomatisierteTabakuntersuchungmittelsFliessinjektionsanalyse (FlA)

References 1. Skeggs, L. T.: An automatic method for colorimet-ric analysis; Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28 (1957) 311— 322. 2. Coakley, W. A.: Handbook of automated analysis — Continuous flow techniques; Marcel Dekker; Inc., New York, N.Y., und Basel, 1981. 3. Technicon Instruments Corporation, Tarrytown, N.Y.: Technicon Bibliography (AutoAnalyzer) 1957-1967/1968 und 1967—1973/1974. 4. Finster, P., F. Tödter und F. Seehofer: Automati-slerte Simultanbestimmung

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The Viscous and Inertial Flow of Air through Perforated Papers

; Recent Adv. Tob. Sci. 4 (1978) 3-34. 7. DeLucia, M, L., C. F. Mattina and W. A. Selke: Physical parameters that affect composition of smoke; Recent Adv. Tob. Sci. 6 (1980) 225—238, 8. Ma this, D. E.: Flow rate dependence of ventilation; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1987) 11-19. 9. CORESTA Recommended Method No. 3: Determination of the air permeability of cigarette paper; CORESTA Information Bulletin 1975—3/4, 38—41. 10. Baker, R. R., and B. G. Bunn: Measuring

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Pressure Drop - Flow Relationships in Cigarette Filter Rods and Tobacco Columns

References 1. Fordyce, W. B., I. W. Hughes and M. G. lvinson: The filtration of cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 70-75. 2. Meyer-Abich, K.: Die StrOmungsverhiiltnisse in Cigaretten; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 307-329. 3. Strydom, M. L., and J. P. Otto: Investigating whether the air flow through cigarettes and filter rods has laminar or turbulent characteristics; Coresta Information Bulletin 1972-2, 13-16. 4. Palmade, P.: Contribution a l'etude des koulements dans les cigarettes; Annales du

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Effects of Varying Tobacco Rod Circumference on Cigarette Combustion: An Experimental Investigation

Ventilation Level on Gas-Phase Temperature Distribution Inside a Burning Cigarette; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 191–203. DOI: 10.1515/cttr-2015-0007 22. Li, B., L.C. Zhao, L. Wang, C. Liu, K.G. McAdam, and B. Wang: Gas-Phase Pressure and Flow Velocity Fields Inside a Burning Cigarette During a Puff; Thermochim. Acta 623 (2016) 22–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.tca.2015.11.006 23. Cui, X.M., C.F. Yu, H.J. Li, L. Wang, L.C. Zhao, and B. Li: Characterization of Instantaneous Burning Rate and Analysis of Regional Characters in Burning Cone Based on Cigarette Temperature

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A Mathematical Scheme for Calculating Flows and Pressure Drops in Lit and Unlit Cigarettes

ventilation variability in cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 13 (1987) 82-118. 5. Lewis, L.S. and A.B. Norman: Effects of tipping perforation type on cigarette performance; 40th Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, Knoxville, TN., Program Booklet and Abstracts, no. 50, p. 27, 1986. 6. Mathis, D.E.: Component analysis of pressure drop and ventilation variability; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 12 (1984) 169-177. 7. Mathis, D.E.: Flow ratę dependence of ventilation; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1987) 11

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Steady State Flow in the Cigarette and its Influence on Pressure Drop - Die stationäreStrömung in der Cigarette und derenEinfluß auf den Zugwiderstand

design handbook, Bd. 2; VDI, Düs-seldorf, Hemisphere, New York, 1986, p. 2.2.5.-2. 32. Carman, P. C.: Flow of gases through porous media; Academic Press, New York, 1956. 33. Happel, J.: Viscous flow in multiparticle systems: slow motion of fluids relative to beds of spherical particles; J.A.I.CH.E. 4 (1958) 197-201. 34. Ergun, S., und A. A. Orning: Fluid flow through randomly packed columns and fluidised beds; Ind. Eng. Chem. 41 (1949) 179. 35. DIN 10251

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Pressure and Gas Flow Distribution Inside the Filter of a Non-Filter Ventilated Lit Cigarette During Puffing

7. REFERENCES 1. Norman, A.: Cigarette Design and Materials; in : Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, pp. 353–387. 2. Fuchs, N.A. and I.B. Stechkina: A Note on the Theory of Fibrous Aerosol Filters; Ann. Occup. Hyg. 6 (1963) 27–30. DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/6.1.27 3. Keith, C.H.: Pressure Drop-Flow Relationships in Cigarette Filter Rods and Tobacco Columns; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1982) 115–121. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0505 4. Keith, C.H.: Physical

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Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke by Continuous Flow Analysis Method Using Safer Chemistry

. 10 (1981) 99–106. DOI:10.1080/03067318108071535 26. Purkis, S. and M. Intorp: Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data from 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New CORESTA Recommended Methods; Beitr. Tabak-forsch. Int. 26 (2014) 57–73. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2014-0010 27. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): 14403-2:2012 Water Quality — Determination of Total Cyanide and Free Cyanide Using Flow Analysis (FIA and CFA) Part 2: Method Using Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012

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