Spatial metaphors have long been part of the way we make sense of media. From early conceptualizations of the internet, we have come to understand digital media as spaces that support, deny or are subject to different mobilities. With the availability of GPS data, somatic bodily movement has enjoyed significant attention in media geography, but recently innovations in digital ethnographic methods have paid attention to other, more ephemeral ways of moving and being with social media. In this article, we consider three case studies in qualitative, “small data” social media research methods: the walkthrough, the go-along and the scroll back methods. Each is centred on observing navigational flows through app infrastructures, fingers hovering across device surfaces and scrolling-and-remembering practices in social media archives. We advocate an ethnography of ephemeral media mobilities and suggest that small data approaches should analytically integrate four dimensions of mediated mobility: bodies and affect, media objects and environments, memory and narrative, and the overall research encounter.
in a more limited scope to describe the media system itself and relationships between different forms of media as well as how this system contributes to the needs of the society ( Scolari, 2012 ). This “inter-media dimension” of the concept has been used by researchers in the USA in studies of media systems in large cities such as Baltimore and Philadelphia. These studies research the flow of news between different platforms and the development of news stories, for example the position of traditional newspapers in relation to expanding digital platforms ( Anderson
Probing the news gap that hyperlocal media are supposed to fill
Michael Karlsson and Erika Hellekant Rowe
influential theoretical perspective among local and hyperlocal news researchers has been the news ecology model . The news ecology model, influenced by the biological ecological system, helps to illustrate and explain the complex system in which news is created and distributed. Using this model makes it easier to grasp the intricate flow of information between different media outlets, which can be both the traditional legacy media and other media sources, such as hyperlocal sites, blogs, citizen journalist websites and so forth. The model points to the importance of
qualitative methodologies for mass communication research (pp. 44-74). London: Routledge.
Jensen, K. B. (2012). Lost, found, and made: Qualitative data in the study of three-step flows of communication. In I. Volkmer (ed.), The handbook of global media research (pp. 435-450). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Jensen, K. B. (2014). Audiences, audiences, everywhere: Measured, interpreted and imagined. In G. Patriarche, H. Bilandzic, J. Linaa Jensen & J. Jurisic (eds.), Audience research methodologies: Between innovation and consolidation (pp. 227-240). London
, support, distribution) with other entities in the network vying for survival. Relations are non-reciprocal and non-linear: some entities profit more than others ( Gowdy, 1992 ).
Media ecosystems research in journalism has focused more on exploring ecologies between media producers, the flow of information and the role of news organisations in networked media ecosystems ( Anderson et al., 2015 ; Deuze et al., 2007 ; Lowrey, 2012 ). Studies use ecosystems to understand media as a flow and power dynamic: for example, the Baltimore news ecosystem ( Project for
. & Tenor C. 2018 Hyperlocals and legacy media Nordicom Review 39 1 33 49
Nygren, G. & Nord, K. O. (2017). Färre nyhetsproducenter – men fler nyheter i nätverkens flöden [Less news producers – but more news in the flows of the networks]. In L. Truedson (ed.), Mediestudiers årsbok: Tillståndet för journalistiken 2016/2017 [The annual book of Mediestudier: The state of journalism 2016/2017] (pp. 32–73). Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier. Nygren G. & Nord K. O. 2017 Färre nyhetsproducenter – men fler nyheter i nätverkens flöden [Less news
Comparing Swedish news and cultural journalism on the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris
Kristina Riegert and Andreas Widholm
alternative angles when deciding what stories to do out of the daily flow of events relevant to the cultural public sphere ( Riegert et al., 2015 ). For example, if a foreign event is considered important for cultural news, instead of the “rapid news reporting of numbers of dead or the goings-on around the negotiation table” ( Riegert et al., 2015 : 780), the focus would be on the broader effects of the event, such as on people’s identities or how these are expressed by cultural actors. The cultural filter is thus related to the tendency among cultural journalists to see
Jaana Hujanen, Katja Lehtisaari, Carl-Gustav Lindén and Mikko Grönlund
, they shape consumers’ perceptions of the price level of digital content services.
In regard to future research on changes in the local media ecosystems and information flows, we argue for a less normative and thematically broader framework for analysing hyperlocal operations. Such a framework would make it possible to recognise better such emerging forms of communication as hyperlocal, which do aim to produce professional news but which have a similar role in people’s everyday lives as the traditional news media have had. An important area for future research would
Helle Sjøvaag, Truls André Pedersen and Ole Martin Lægreid
( Siebert et al., 1956 ) onward, are elite power models where influence flows between the government and the press (Ostini & Ostini, 2002 ). Embedded in media systems perspectives are, however, the role played by different subsystems within national settings (e.g. Christians et al., 2010 ).
Here, local media ecosystems have been referred to as the ‘microcosmos’, characterised by the close proximity between journalism, its sources and the public ( Guimera et al., 2018 ). Because local news ecosystems differ across nations – depending on their media systems and their
period. The results suggest that subscription streaming channels generate few revenues for film producers and that the home video market as a whole has declined, making film producers more dependent on the revenues from their premier window, cinema releases.
The rest of the article is organized as follows. The next section reviews the literature on value creation and capture models in the film industry. Then I present a model of key functions and transactions between producers and audiences, exposing the key money and product/service flows. The case study method and