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Type 2 Diabetes and its Implications in Cerebrovascular Disease

Type 2 Diabetes and its Implications in Cerebrovascular Disease

Type 2 diabetes represents an independent risk factor for vascular cerebral pathology, with a 2-3 times greater probability of stroke. The number of diabetic patients with stroke increased substantially from 6.2% to 11.3% during 1996-2006. Ischemic stroke, small or large vessels occlusion, is the main subtype of cerebrovascular disease, while a smaller percentage is attributed to cerebral hemorrhage. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, excess free fatty acids, prothrombotic state cause endothelial dysfunction with blood flow disturbance and major cerebral vessels injury. Elevated blood sugar levels are also associated with a poor prognosis during post-stroke phase. From the total number of deaths caused by acute cerebrovascular events, 16% for men and 33% for women are due to diabetes.

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Gender-Specific Differences of Oxidative Processes in the Population of Circulating Neutrophils of Rats in a Setting of Prolonged Administration of Monosodium Glutamate

Abstract

Background and aims: Monosodium salt of glutamic acid (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. The aim of study was to assess, in gender-specific terms, how prolonged administration of MSG effects on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation and the apoptotic/necrotic processes in the population of rats circulating neutrophils.

Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on 32 mature white rats. MSG was administered intragastrical at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The analysis of cell samples to determine neutrophils with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signs of apoptosis\necrosis was evaluated with flow laser cytometry method. The total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by monitoring the rate of conversion of L-arginine into citrulline. The total quantity of NO metabolites was assessed by evaluating of nitrite and nitrate ions.

Results: We found a significant increase in generation of ROS, intensification of nitroxydergic processes, an increase in the percentage of apoptotic neutrophils and no changes in the percentage of necrotic neutrophils.

Conclusions: We observed activation of oxidative and nitroxydergic processes in rats with prolonged administration of MSG, which initiate apoptosis. In gender-specific terms, a more pronounced changes were seen in male rats.

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Endothelial Dysfunction and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients with Diabetes

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Subclinical Diastolic Dysfunction and Its Correlation with Laboratory Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in India: A Case Control Study

. Relationship between HgbA1c and myocardial blood flow reserve in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: noninvasive assessment using real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2014. 17. Patil VC, Patil HV, Shah KB, Vasani JD, Shetty P. Diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal systolic function. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2(4): 213-22, 2011. 18. Albanna II, Eichelberger SM, Khoury PR et al. Diastolic dysfunction in young patients with insulindependent diabetes mellitus as

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Assessment of Metabolic Syndrome and Clinical Significance of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

ventricular function. J Hypertens 11: 327-337, 1993. 23. Suzuki E, Kashiwagi A, Nishio Y, et al. Increased arterial wall stiffness limits flow volume in the lower extremities in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 24: 2107–2114, 2001. 24. Turin TC, Kita Y, Rumana N et al. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts all-cause mortality in the general population: findings from the Takashima Study, Japan. Hypertension Res 33: 922–925, 2010. 25. Yamashina A, Tomiyama H, Takeda K et al. Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of

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Macrosomia. A Systematic Review of Recent Literature

.J, Chescheir NC, Stamilio D. Idiopathic Polyhydramnios: Severity and Perinatal Morbidity. Am J Perinatol 33(7): 658-64, 2016 21. Kessler J, Rasmussen S, Godfrey K, Hanson M, Kiserud T. Venous liver blood flow and regulation of human fetal growth:evidence from macrosomic fetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 204(5): 429.e1-7, 2011 22. Kurishita M, Nakashima K, Kozu H. A retrospective study of glucose metabolism in mothers of large babies. Diabetes Care 17(7): 649-52, 1994 23. Olmos PR, Rigotti A, Busso D et al. Maternal

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The impact of arterial stiffness on cognitive status in elderly diabetic patients

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The Role Of Elevated NT-ProbNP And Albuminuria As Cardio-Vascular Risk Factors In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients After Acute Coronary Syndrome

determinants of microalbuminuria in high - risk diabetic and nondiabetic patients in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study. The HOPE Study Investigators. Diabetes Care 23[Suppl 2]: B35-B39 , 2000. 5. Stehouwer CD, Henry RM, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM. Microalbuminuria is associated with impaired brachial artery, flow-mediated vasodilation in elderly individuals without and with diabetes: further evidence for a link between microalbuminuria and endothelial dysfunction - the Hoorn Study. Kidney Int Suppl (92): S42-S44, 2004. 6. Quyyumi

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The Effect of Chewing a Sugar-Free Gum After Oatmeal on the Postprandial Glycaemia – A Cross-Over Study

References 1. Beiswanger BB, Boneta AE, Mau MS, Katz BP, Proskin HM, Stookey GK. The effect of chewing sugarfree gum after meals on clinical caries incidence. J Am Dent Assoc 129: 1623-1626, 1998. 2. Szöke J, Bánóczy J, Proskin HM. Effect of after-meal sucrose-free gum-chewing on clinical caries. J Dent Res 80: 1725-1729, 2001. 3. Dawes C, Kubieniec K. The effects of prolonged gum chewing on salivary flow rate and composition. Arch Oral Biol 49: 665-669, 2004. 4. Dodds MWJ, Johnson DA, Yeh CK

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The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications of Diabetes Mellitus - A High Priority Area of Investigation

metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 36: 683-689, 2013. 25. Basu A, Charkoudian N, Schrage W, Rizza RA, Basu R, Joyner MJ. Beneficial effects of GLP-1 on endothelial function in humans: dampening by glyburide but not by glimepiride. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E1289-E1295, 2007. 26. Irace C, De Luca S, Shehaj E et al. Exenatide improves endothelial function assessed by flow mediated dilation technique in subjects with type 2 diabetes: results from an observational research. Diab Vasc Dis Res 10: 72-77, 2013.

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