Cristina Muntean, Adina Mitrea, Maria Mota and Valerica Tudorica
Type 2 Diabetes and its Implications in Cerebrovascular Disease
Type 2 diabetes represents an independent risk factor for vascular cerebral pathology, with a 2-3 times greater probability of stroke. The number of diabetic patients with stroke increased substantially from 6.2% to 11.3% during 1996-2006. Ischemic stroke, small or large vessels occlusion, is the main subtype of cerebrovascular disease, while a smaller percentage is attributed to cerebral hemorrhage. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, excess free fatty acids, prothrombotic state cause endothelial dysfunction with blood flow disturbance and major cerebral vessels injury. Elevated blood sugar levels are also associated with a poor prognosis during post-stroke phase. From the total number of deaths caused by acute cerebrovascular events, 16% for men and 33% for women are due to diabetes.
Inna Krynytska, Mariya Marushchak and Anastasiia Rutska
Background and aims: Monosodium salt of glutamic acid (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. The aim of study was to assess, in gender-specific terms, how prolonged administration of MSG effects on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation and the apoptotic/necrotic processes in the population of rats circulating neutrophils.
Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on 32 mature white rats. MSG was administered intragastrical at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The analysis of cell samples to determine neutrophils with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signs of apoptosis\necrosis was evaluated with flow laser cytometry method. The total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by monitoring the rate of conversion of L-arginine into citrulline. The total quantity of NO metabolites was assessed by evaluating of nitrite and nitrate ions.
Results: We found a significant increase in generation of ROS, intensification of nitroxydergic processes, an increase in the percentage of apoptotic neutrophils and no changes in the percentage of necrotic neutrophils.
Conclusions: We observed activation of oxidative and nitroxydergic processes in rats with prolonged administration of MSG, which initiate apoptosis. In gender-specific terms, a more pronounced changes were seen in male rats.
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