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Bee-pollen is a product of the hive which has had a growth in consumption in recent years due to the recognition of its nutritional and bioactive potential. However, several reports have shown that the external structure of the grain limits the absorption of nutrients in the human gastrointestinal tract. A structural modification could be achieved through fermentative processes, favoring the release of compounds found inside this food, in addition to obtaining a product with potential probiotic characteristics. The objective of this work was to evaluate how fermentation through the inclusion of yeasts of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria of species Lactobacillus plantarum or a commercial culture Choozit® affeccted such parameters as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The results found that the use of consortia between yeast and lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in such characteristics as total phenolics and antioxidant activity by 31% and 39% respectively. The analysis by DSC showed an increase in the heat flow of the fermented products compared to fresh bee-pollen, which could indicate structural modification caused by the activity of microorganisms, a fact made visible through micrographs obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy.
The aim of this study was to identify which Nosema species infect those Apis mellifera worker bees performing different functions in the colony. Samples were taken from different places inside and outside the hive, in the honey flow season. In February 2010, winter hive debris from 30 colonies was analyzed, and based on the microsporidian species identified by multiplex PCR. The following bee colonies (none of which displayed clinical symptoms of the disease) were selected for further analyses to determine the occurrence of microsporidian parasites: 1) colony A/C infected with Nosema apis and N. ceranae (mixed infection), 2) colony A infected with N. apis, 3) colony C - infected with N. ceranae, and 4) colony K - the control, which was free of infection. Between April and August, 20 nurse bees from frames of open brood, and 20 forager bees returning to the hive from pollen-collecting trips were randomly selected from each colony at 30-day intervals. The results of the study indicate that the microsporidian species is determined not only by the type of worker bee (sampling site), but also by the period (month) of the sample collection. Our findings also suggest that regardless of the type of initial infection, bees infected by different microsporidian species and bees free from infection can coexist in colonies.
Nóra Vili, Jozef Chavko, Krisztián Szabó, Szilvia Kovács, Erzsébet Hornung, Lajos Kalmár and Márton Horváth
Genetic structure of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) population in Slovakia
The distribution of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in the Carpathian Basin is not continuous, since western and eastern breeding pairs are separated by 150 km from each other in Slovakia, and 70 km in Hungary. In the present study our aim was to examine whether this geographical distance has resulted in any genetic separation between the Western and Eastern Slovak breeding groups. We have used 132 shed feathers and 128 blood samples collected in the fields geographically representing the whole of the Slovak breeding population, and included all juveniles ringed between 2004 and 2006. After successful DNA extractions we have determined the sex, microsatellite DNA-profiles and mtDNA control region haplotypes of the specimens. Data were integrated in a common Hungarian-Slovak "DNA-fingerprint" database, making identification of the same specimen possible when recaptured. Based on a subsample of the collected individuals, the genetic structure of the Slovak population was tested using ten microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region haplotypes, and marginally significant genetic differentiation was found between western and eastern subpopulations. These results suggest that, in spite of the large dispersal capacity of the species, a relatively small geographic distance can also decrease the exchange rate of individuals between subpopulations. As this result involves only samples from the northern part of the breeding area, major conclusions concerning genetic structure and gene flow of Imperial Eagles in the entire Carpathian Basin population cannot be drawn without sampling and analysing the southern subpopulations in Hungary.
József Fidlóczky, János Bagyura, Károly Nagy, Tamás Szitta, László Haraszthy and Péter Tóth
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