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Two ploidy levels of genetically delimited groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex (Jungermanniopsida, Calypogeiaceae)

. Folia Geobot. 41: 417-432. Szweykowski J. 2006. An annotated checklist of Polish liverworts. In: Z. Mirek (ed.) Biodiversity of Poland, 4, 114 pp. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Śliwińska E., Krzakowa M. & Melosik I. 2000. Estimation of ploidy level in four Sphagnum species (Subsecunda section) by flow cytometry. In: M. Krzakowa & I. Melosik (eds.). The variability in Polish populations of sphagnum taxa (Subsecunda section) according to morphological anatomical and biochemical traits. Bogucki Press SC

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Exploitation of Rape Flow by Bee Colonies in Stationary and Migratory Apiary

factor in preparing colonies for early nectar flows. J. Apic. Sci., 52(1): 65 - 72. Wilde J., Krukowski R., Bobrzecki J. (1994) - Porównanie metod gospodarki pasiecznej umożliwiających zwiększenie ilości pozyskiwanych obnóży pyłkowych. [The comparison of the beekeeping technologies that allow to increase the amounts of obtained pollen loads] Acta Acad. Agricult. Techn. Olst. Zootechnica , 39: 181-191. Wilde J., Cichoń J., Grabowski P. (2002) - Korzyści ukierunkowywania pasiek profesjonalnych na pozyskiwanie pyłku. [The benefits from

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Investigation of Avalanche Time and Carr’s Index of Poultry Litter Powder as Flowability Indices

References Abdullah E.C., Geldart D., 1999 - The use of bulk density measurements as flowability indicators. Powder Technology, 102:151-165. ASABE Standards S269.4., 2002 - Cubes, Pellets, and Crumbles - Definitions and Methods for Determining Density, Durability and Moisture Content. ASABE, St.Joseph, MI. ASTM Standard B 527., 2005 - Standard Test Method for Determination of Tap Density of Metallic Powders and Compounds. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. Balasubramanian D., 2001

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Equisetum ×moorei Newman (Equisetaceae) – a ‘new’ nothotaxon in the Polish flora

hyemale L. et E. ×moorei Newman). Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb. 98: 53-60. Decker P. 1912 Beiträge zur Flora der südlichen Neumark und der Östlichen Niederlausitz. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Branderburg 53: 87-269. Doležel J., Greilhuber J., Lucretti S., Meister A., Lysak M. A., Nardi L. & Oberma yer R. 1998. Plant genome size estimation by flow cytometry: Inter-laboratory comparison. Ann. Bot. 82 (suppl. A): 17 - 26. Dostál J. 1984. Equisetum. In: G. Hegi (ed.). Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, Band I, Teil 1. Pteridophyta. 3rd

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Gis-Based Flow Routing with the Distributed Hydrological Wetspa Model in the Ziarat River Basin - Gorgan, Iran

References Bahremand A., De Smedt F., 2007 - Distributed hydrological modeling and sensitivity analysis in Torysa watershed, Slovakia. Water Resour Manag, 22:393-408. Bahremand A., De Smedt F., Corluy J., Liu Y.B., Poórová J., Velcická L., Kuniková E., 2006 - Application of WetSpa model for assessing landuse impacts on floods in Margecany-Hornad watershed, Slovakia. Water Sci Technol, 53(10), 37-45. Bahremand A., Corluy J., Liu Y., De Smedt F., Poórová J., Velcická L., 2005 - Stream flow simulation by WetSpa

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Effect of Fermentation on Structural Characteristics and Bioactive Compounds of Bee-Pollen based Food

Abstract

Bee-pollen is a product of the hive which has had a growth in consumption in recent years due to the recognition of its nutritional and bioactive potential. However, several reports have shown that the external structure of the grain limits the absorption of nutrients in the human gastrointestinal tract. A structural modification could be achieved through fermentative processes, favoring the release of compounds found inside this food, in addition to obtaining a product with potential probiotic characteristics. The objective of this work was to evaluate how fermentation through the inclusion of yeasts of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria of species Lactobacillus plantarum or a commercial culture Choozit® affeccted such parameters as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The results found that the use of consortia between yeast and lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in such characteristics as total phenolics and antioxidant activity by 31% and 39% respectively. The analysis by DSC showed an increase in the heat flow of the fermented products compared to fresh bee-pollen, which could indicate structural modification caused by the activity of microorganisms, a fact made visible through micrographs obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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Detection of Nosema spp. in Worker Bees of Different Ages During the Flow Season

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify which Nosema species infect those Apis mellifera worker bees performing different functions in the colony. Samples were taken from different places inside and outside the hive, in the honey flow season. In February 2010, winter hive debris from 30 colonies was analyzed, and based on the microsporidian species identified by multiplex PCR. The following bee colonies (none of which displayed clinical symptoms of the disease) were selected for further analyses to determine the occurrence of microsporidian parasites: 1) colony A/C infected with Nosema apis and N. ceranae (mixed infection), 2) colony A infected with N. apis, 3) colony C - infected with N. ceranae, and 4) colony K - the control, which was free of infection. Between April and August, 20 nurse bees from frames of open brood, and 20 forager bees returning to the hive from pollen-collecting trips were randomly selected from each colony at 30-day intervals. The results of the study indicate that the microsporidian species is determined not only by the type of worker bee (sampling site), but also by the period (month) of the sample collection. Our findings also suggest that regardless of the type of initial infection, bees infected by different microsporidian species and bees free from infection can coexist in colonies.

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Genetic structure of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) population in Slovakia

Genetic structure of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) population in Slovakia

The distribution of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in the Carpathian Basin is not continuous, since western and eastern breeding pairs are separated by 150 km from each other in Slovakia, and 70 km in Hungary. In the present study our aim was to examine whether this geographical distance has resulted in any genetic separation between the Western and Eastern Slovak breeding groups. We have used 132 shed feathers and 128 blood samples collected in the fields geographically representing the whole of the Slovak breeding population, and included all juveniles ringed between 2004 and 2006. After successful DNA extractions we have determined the sex, microsatellite DNA-profiles and mtDNA control region haplotypes of the specimens. Data were integrated in a common Hungarian-Slovak "DNA-fingerprint" database, making identification of the same specimen possible when recaptured. Based on a subsample of the collected individuals, the genetic structure of the Slovak population was tested using ten microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region haplotypes, and marginally significant genetic differentiation was found between western and eastern subpopulations. These results suggest that, in spite of the large dispersal capacity of the species, a relatively small geographic distance can also decrease the exchange rate of individuals between subpopulations. As this result involves only samples from the northern part of the breeding area, major conclusions concerning genetic structure and gene flow of Imperial Eagles in the entire Carpathian Basin population cannot be drawn without sampling and analysing the southern subpopulations in Hungary.

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Bird conservation on electric-power lines in Hungary: Nest boxes for saker falcon and avian protection against electrocutions. Projects' report

References Bagyura J & Péchy T 1 999: „Az áldásos áram” [“Blessing flow”]. Madártávlat 6(6): 2-3. [In Hungarian] Bagyura J, Szitta T, Sándor I, Viszló L, Firmánszky G, Forgách B, Boldogh S & Demeter I 2004: A review of measures taken against bird electrocutionin Hungary, 423-428. In: Chancellor RD & MeyburgB-U (eds) Raptors worldwide. Proceedings of the VI. World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, MME/BirdLife Hungary, Budapest, 867. Bagyura J, Szitta S

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Comparative Study on Physicochemical Properties of Selected Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Varieties in Northern Bangladesh

acid during storage. Malaysian J. Analyt.Sci., 17(3): 499-509. Norman, N. (1976). Food science, 2nd Edition, The Avi Publishing Company , INC-Westport, Connecticut. Ntombela, S. (2012). South African fruit trade flow markets. Economic Research Center, National Agricultural Marketing Council , Issue no. 6. Padda, M.S., Amarante, C.V.T., Garcia, R.M., Slaughter, D.C. & Mitchama, E.J. (2011). Methods to analyze physico-chemical changes during mango ripening: a multivariate approach. Postharvest Biol.Technol., 62: 267-274, DOI: 10.1016/j

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