In 1910 the Crownland Moravia was confidentially granted a 5 million loan by the Viennese government. Moravia was heavily indebted and spent extensive expenditures for schooling, infrastructure and social welfare. The secret loan to Moravia was just one part of the multi-tiered system of fiscal flows in late Imperial Austria that was subject to emotionally heated debates. Since the budgetary power in the regional, transnational and imperial arenas came with determining the political priorities there, negotiations of the budget mirrored conflicting political camps often divided along national lines. On the imperial level, however, the same politicians forged transnational cooperation and new forms of transnational revenue sharing. Utterances of emotions were made more objective the higher the political level the crownland’s leading officials dealt with. The emotional side of fiscal politics, however, can be seen as a driving force in prioritising certain policy fields.
, existed long before the age in which civil servants formed a social group. The ethos of the civil servant, therefore, cannot be understood as a consequence of the gradual formation of the relevant professional group. Rather, we can establish that anachronistic elements flowed into this ethos, including those that are much older than administration and statehood themselves.
If we refrain from thinking from the end, in other words from the fully developed civil service of Max Weber, but instead take the premodern as our starting point, it can be seen relatively easily
Flows in Global Economy, New York 2003, p.347–370.
How can we get the transplanting process right? That is the problem which the research program presented here intends to investigate. We know from the few successful examples that the key to transplanting lies in the adaptation of the imported, foreign standard to the local context. See Joachim Zweynert, »Economic Culture and Transition«, in: Intereconomics 41 (2006), p. 182–188; and Valentin Seidler, »When Do Institutional Transfers Work? The Relation between Institutions, Culture and the Transplant Effect: the
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
topic for each letter, a date, a reference to the document the letter related to, observance of the deadline for answering, and return of documents on request. Circular 30 January 1818, no. 225/1012, published in Daniel Jan ten Zeldam Ganswijk: Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis van het staatsbestuur in ons vaderland en meer bijzonder in het gewest Zuid-Holland gedurende de jaren 1813 tot en met 1845, vol. 2, Dordrecht 1849, p. 474–475.
This was neither the first time nor the last that a governor tried to streamline the information flow between center and periphery. From
public administrators in their efforts to fulfil their tasks and, at the same time, their understanding of status. Implied here is a self-discipline aimed at not allowing inappropriate emotions to flow into the decision-making process as well as a balanced management that allows certain emotions to be taken into account. Terry A. Maroney: »Emotional Regulation and Judicial Behavior«, in: California Law Review 99 (2011), pp. 1485–1556. Self-regulation of emotions, however, not only means the confrontation between one’s own emotional sensitivities and emotion
between the administrative culture and the performance of individual civil servants. The organisation of work flows and the work ethic in the public service were explicitly addressed by some citizens. They used widely held stereotypes to be found in contemporary debates such as »the notion of the ›sluggard‹ in the public service«. Kreisky: Bürokratie und Politik, p. 578.
because if vastly overpaid but inactive and lazy Austrian officials continue to torment, discriminate and harass the citizens, would that also be a good alternative for those, in my opinion, strange