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Beyond the brain drain/gain question, there are many externalities linked to the presence of diaspora networks in the host countries. On the one hand, diaspora networks can help their home countries to integrate more into the global economy. In this paper, I will discuss how migrant networks contribute to bilateral trade, investments, and other financial flows as well as to the diffusion of knowledge and technology between home and host countries. On the other hand, diaspora networks can have an effect that is not purely economic but also cultural and political
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Xuan Wei, Gülcan Önel, Zhengfei Guan and Fritz Roka
widespread, and the flow of undocumented migrants resumed shortly after the 1986 reform.
Reforming federal immigration policies with improved guest worker programs and enhanced border security measures have been a controversial point of debate, particularly within the context of the agricultural sector and farmworkers. Legislators find themselves having to balance the two opposing viewpoints. On the one hand, there are concerns from the general public that a rising immigrant population may adversely affect native workers by either driving them out of U.S. farm jobs or
Pablo de Pedraza, Stefano Visintin, Kea Tijdens and Gábor Kismihók
the traditional methods, and (4) it is unstructured. The data also change the scale and scope of the sources of material available and the tools for manipulation, as signaled by Schroeder (2014) . Information contained in job advertisements can be cleaned, used to de-duplicate vacancies posted in more than one site, structured, and aggregated to give it a meaningful structure for our purpose.
The two sources produce different kinds of information about vacancies. Although CBS produces information about flows of vacancies (new vacancies emerging during a quarter
within-mother variation in outcomes and the incidence of a child’s unemployment spell.
Our analysis includes four classes of dependent variables that attempt to quantify the flow of financial assistance to children and any concurrent changes in parents’ outcomes. Specifically, we examine the effect of a child’s unemployment on the following parental behaviors: assistance to children (measured in reported cash transfers), consumption (measured in household food consumption), income (measured in labor supply and program participation), and savings (measured in savings
for drinking water, it is not a place where people would want to retire.
As with quantitative studies, qualitative research can gather retrospective migration histories or participants can be followed over time. The approach used in the case study was a combination of the two, although the main migration events emerged through retrospective reporting. Lindiwe’s initial account and its implied causal flow fitted neatly with the idea that if alternative care were available at the home of origin, a migrant mother would be inclined to delay bringing her children to