The main goal of our research is to analyze and display causes of a bullwhip effect formation within a supply chain, as well as to provide the appropriate solutions to limit the occurrence of the bullwhip effect by using the proper information flow and partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. The bullwhip effect is one of the most important issues in the supply chain management and it is present in many companies. It preserves a character of invisibility because there are lots of causes for its formation and they are usually difficult to discern. The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon of an increase in the order variability within a supply chain. The higher we are within the supply chain, the higher is the order variability. The company encountered with the whip effect can successfully reduce its impact by improving the information flow, as well as improving partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. In this way the company can limit its negative repercussions and increase the profit. The article focuses on the overview of the bullwhip effect within a distribution chain, from its causes to suggestions and measures how to ease its negative repercussions on the organisation. Part of the causes could be found in the market demand variability and in the lack of communication about the actual marked demand within the supply chain. The rest of the causes are related to obstacles that emerge among different partners within the supply chain (role of culture). A qualitative analysis is applied on the basis of the selected cognitions from the supply chain management. The quantitative analysis is based on the theoretical research of the effective flow of information among the participants and its contribution to the reduction of the bullwhip impact. The article discusses two research questions: 1) The correct information flow within the supply chain and the improvement of the communication among partners can lead to the bullwhip effect reduction, and 2) A reduction of the bullwhip influence can lead to the increase of cooperation among partners. The results of the analysis can be used for further research.
Radoslav Rajkovic, Nenad Zrnic, Đorđe Stakic and Borut Mahnic
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Accessibility is a well-known and studied concept within the scientific literature. Good transportation accessibility is certainly an important factor in exploiting spatial potentials. The quality of transportation infrastructure in terms of capacity, travel speed, connectivity etc., determines the quality and advantage of a location relative to other locations, which is usually measured as accessibility. Increasingly overloaded transport corridors, in the context of changing transportation flows are becoming an important issue for accessibility. This Paper gives a very brief overview of which kind of transportation networks and services indicators should be used in relevant documents and in transportation planning practice. This Paper provides a comprehensive overview of the different definitions, dimensions and indicators of accessibility in the literature of those already discovered.
The increased demand and supply of logistics services bring together the logistics service providers (LSPs) and the companies that outsource logistics activities. LSPs stand in between those companies and their customers, thus playing an essential role for supply chain integration. If the two parties have different viewpoints of the processes in the supply chain, the fulfillment of the goal to satisfy the end customers may be hindered. The purpose of this article is two-fold: First, to investigate the characteristics of logistics outsourcing in Bulgaria from the perspectives of the logistics service providers and their customers, and more specifically, to compare their viewpoints concerning the motives for outsourcing, the methods and contents of communication and some relationship management aspects; Second, to assess the relations of the communication and relationship management aspects to customer satisfaction. This article is based on empirical data provided by 138 manufacturing and trading companies and 136 LSPs and collected through two structured questionnaires designed to address the researched issues. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the independent samples t-test. The research found that the service related reasons for logistics outsourcing are prevailing and that LSPs overestimate, compared to manufacturing and trading companies, motives related to service, organizational capabilities and relationships, while more manufacturing and trading companies concern as important the availability of logistics assets and the provision of value-added services. The research also found that both the LSPs and their customers consider that the extent of sharing of knowledge and information essential for material flow integration is very low and that the usage of team meetings and joint teams is quite rare. Also, customers do not view their relationships with the LSPs as so collaborative as viewed by the LSPs. Furthermore, the research proved the existence of positive relationships between customer satisfaction and communication through team meetings and joint teams, knowledge sharing concerning material flow management and relationship management issues such as trust, mutual problem solving, understanding the logistics strategy of the other party and respecting its financial interests. The research findings may help fill in some of the gaps between LSPs and their customers. They point the need for LSPs to include in their service offerings more value-added services and to invest in assets that provide reliable and flexible services for their customers. The research also highlights the importance of knowledge sharing and trust building and reveals great potential for effective trust-based alliances between LSPs and their customers that could help them extract more competitive benefits from their relationships.
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