. 21, No. 5, pp. 509–530. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916589215001
9. Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1990. 336 p.
10. Zaleckis, K., Matijošaitienė, I. Hidden urban revolution in Kaunas downtown area: 1935–1988–2011. Proceedings: Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium . Edited by M. Greene, J. Reyes and A. Castro. Santiago de Chile: PUC 87. 2012. pp. 8227:1–8227:16.
11. Turner A., Doxa M., O’Sullivan D., Penn A. From isovists to visibility graphs: a methodology for the
The aim of this paper is to characterise commuting trends in Riga agglomeration, while taking into account proximity to Riga and territorial accessibility. Changes of commuting range are looked at through literature analysis (historical context) and by using descriptive analysis and parametric tests (current situation). Results indicate that while both proximity to Riga and access to state level roads have a significant impact on commuting flows, it is the former which has a more significant impact.
in the core city), income and tax data.
Studies that use algorithms to delineate local labour markets or urban agglomerations commonly prioritise commuting flows to the core city, often by applying different thresholds ( Corvers, Hensen & Bongaerts 2009 ; Sykora & Mulicek 2009 ; Cottineau et al. 2018 ; INSEE Definition of urban area ). There are various commuting flows – those to and from the core city, a combination of both, or flows based on motivation, e.g. work, leisure activity ( Corvers, Hensen & Bongaerts 2009 ). In some cases, thresholds are pre
politicians and officials of the four state governments within the region ( Banerjee 1996 ). However, resistance to the perceived intrusion of national government in state planning affairs continued and the NCRPB was never properly capacitated.
The liberalisation of India’s economy in the early 1990s (the ‘post-socialist transition’) further weakened the prospects for co-ordinated regional development. The flows of real estate and other investment capital that followed liberalisation was directed by market choice into Delhi proper, and into an inner ring of new cities
metaphor of the Iron Curtain dividing East from the West, or dark, colourless and opressive communism from bright, colourful, and democratic capitalism, has obscured the actual porousness of this boundary to the flow of commodities, images and aspirations – not to mention economic exchanges in the forms of loans (from West to East) and labour (from East to West, especially in the 1980s)’ ( Fehervary 2013 : 20).
While the ‘chronotopia’ A play on words referring to the concept of chronotope (time-space) developed by the Russian literary scholar Mikhail Bakhtin in 1937
attract investment ( Czerny 2014 ). The biggest cities in this region become hubs of development deepening the gap with surrounding territories. The process is present worldwide, as globalised world companies need to localise their physical infrastructure in a real place ‘even when the outputs are hypermobile’ ( Sassen 2005 : 35), but in Latin America the gap is especially striking.
The very dynamic flow of immigrants was a result of their developing economies, and this factor determined the structure of many Latin-American cities, inducing the expansion of housing
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
( SraayNews ). The results showed longer travel times during congestion ranging from 267% to 600% of normal (i.e., free-flow traffic). Given this situation, walking or cycling might be more efficient than cars. However, the climate of Kuwait may result in public transportation being a more popular option. No study was found that could provide an understanding of how congestion in Kuwait affects the people emotionally and physically, nor why more people don’t walk, bike, or take public transportation. Internationally, studies have been made of the relationship between mode
Sustainable development has now become an element that is deeply integrated in contemporary architectonic design and urban planning. With the development of a modern designer’s workshop, resilience, passive, ecological, plus energy or nZEB buildings and various smart city issues have to be included in line with more conventional analyses prepared during the design processes. Currently, we also face the emerging theme of the circular economy. This has a great impact, not just on the introduction of circular loops into the flow of building materials, but also on the design approach and management choices. Historic heritage buildings forming part of the building stock must be considered within this new theme. Most existing research deals either with new or modernised buildings, or with the re-use flows of various materials, actually often coming from historic buildings which have passed beyond the limits of repair. This paper shows a different approach to historic buildings where a design was prepared focusing on best choice cases and included a chain of several intertwining approaches, presented against the background of a Polish case study in Warsaw. The aim of this work is to propose a design management procedure to be used when dealing with historic buildings. It follows both the path of a circular economy and of heritage values, emphasising the need to maintain as much of the existing fabric as possible. This analysis is also based on various issues of site research and is followed by historic building case analysis.
The article is intended to verify the hypothesis that local authorities take action as a result of lobbying by grassroots movements. Groups of city residents intervene in politics under the slogans of a right to clean air. Local authorities draw on lobbying and a vogue for green living and politics rather than on a firm diagnosis of the sources of smog in cities. The managers and operators of public transport are unprepared for a possible increase in passenger flows during the so-called smog alert because they did not analyse the costs associated with the
surrounding area than a traditional, human driver. Some of that information will be pre-emptive information. This allows inter-car distances to be shorter and as a result road traffic can be much more continuous and calm. Even if the average traffic speed is low, traffic flow will be higher and space consumption lower. There will be no need to overtake vehicles one after the other in urban areas thanks to the good continuity of traffic flow, so the width of the road (street) could be reduced under the condition of providing bands for short stops and side exclusion strips at