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Secondary antibody deficiency and immunoglobulin replacement

of suspicion would be even greater in the face of particular pathogens, such as encapsulated bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae ), parasites (e.g., Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium ) or severe/persistent viral infections (e.g., chronic norovirus or enteroviruses).[ 52 ] Other causes of antibody deficiencies, such as primary antibody deficiencies, manifestation of underlying primary disease, protein-losing states, infections and other possible causative drugs ( Table 1 ) should also be excluded. Further workup such as diagnostic

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