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Pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease: immunopathogenesis and diagnosis

, Streptococcus pneumoniae . PsA = pneumococcal surface antigen A. PiaA/PiuA = pneumococcal iron acquisition and uptake. PspR = pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein. PavA = pneumococcal adhesion and virulence. LTA = lipoteichoic acid. is defined as pneumococci in which the serotype is undetected and usually discovered in non-encapsulated pneumococci ( 10 ). Pneumococcal serotypes are also divided into two groups based on their ability to overcome the immune response: colonization and invasive serotypes ( 11 ). Colonization serotypes are resistant to non

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Pneumonia by Kocuria rosea: case report and literature review

initiated. Systemic inflammatory response modulation was observed from the third day of hospitalisation in the ICU. Vasopressor support could be weaned and sedation suspended, and the extubation protocol was started. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed with acid fast bacilli and Gram staining, reporting the presence of K. rosea After 5 days, the modulation of the inflammatory response and hemodynamic and respiratory status were achieved. Discussion Kocuria are non-encapsulated, non-endospore-forming Grampositive cocci from the

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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the lung: a case series

present in the lower lobes. However, radiographic images and invasive diagnostic procedures such as percutaneous fineneedle aspiration biopsy or bronchoscopy are considered insufficient for a clear diagnosis. Because of this, the best way of reaching a diagnosis and a therapeutic cure remains through surgery ( 5 , 8 ). Macroscopically, the most common presentation of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours appears as wellcircumscribed, non-encapsulated, firm, usually yellow–white masses containing variable inflammation, haemorrhage, calcification, and rarely cavitations

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