cities, and hence abrupt suburban growth. In seeking to encapsulate the phenomenon, scientists adopted many different approaches, among which the most noteworthy were examples of the modelling of city space. German geographers were the undoubted pioneers of such work with the subject literature, inter alia , being enriched by such models applying to Latin America, as those proposed by Bähr, Mertins, Borsdorf and Gormsen ( Wilhelmy, Borsdorf 1984 ) in the case of Brazilian cities ( Kraas et al. 2014 ). These were joined by Griffin and Ford ( Czerny 2014 ), as well as
In pace with changing social developments, cities undergo regular processes of transformation. Thus, following a temporary preference for suburban living, the inner city has for some years now been enjoying a residential renaissance. A further, as yet little noticed, trend is the urbanisation of former suburbs. Encompassing urbanisation and gentrification processes found in the inner-ring suburbs, this entails a breaking of established dichotomies and the development of hybrid phenomena that can be encapsulated in the acronym URFSURBS: ‘urbanisation of former suburbs’. Focusing on examples from Southern California and Greater Paris, this article places these developments in context and outlines their implications for future research.
dauerhaft an ihre Arbeitseinheit gebunden, von der sie am Ende in nahezu allen Lebensbereichen abhängig waren.
Die städtischen Arbeitseinheiten (D anweis)
Die Arbeitseinheit wurde damit die grundlegende gesellschaftliche Einheit in den Städten, deren interne zellulare Struktur auch heute noch räumlich zu fassen ist. Nahezu alle Arbeitseinheiten sind durch Mauern abgeschlossen; die Eingangstore werden kontrolliert. Lü/Perry formulierten: „Perhaps the most distinctive feature of the danwei is its encapsulation as a community and social cell. In some cases, the
Munteanu Marius, Ion Sandu, Ioana Huțanu and Liliana Nica
The paper presents the stages and the operations involved in the preservation and restoration of two icons on wooden support, from the XIX-th century, which are part of the heritage of the ”Sfinții Arhangheli Mihail and Gavriil” church, from Galați. The two icon have inventory numbers as part of the collection as followed: 112 for the first icon and 113 for the second one. Both icons have the same theme, ”The Grieving Mother from Rohia” and are made by anonymous painters in egg tempera, on lime wooden support, without ground. Being part of the same collection, they were deposited in the same place and as a direct consequence, they suffer from similar deteriorations and degradations that affect both the support and the painting layer. Both panels are attacked by xylophagous insects and the painting layer has detachments, gaps, cracks, clogged dirt and a cracked and degraded varnish layer. Ten samples taken from the already detached areas were analyzed by optical microscope, SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR. Based on the chemical elements identified in the EDX spectrums, the pigments used to create the painting layer are: ultramarine natural blue Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4, carbon black, earth green, K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2, ocher (FeO), burned or natural umber Fe2O3· H2O + MnO2·n H2O+ Al2O3, lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) and yellow iron oxide (Fe2O3·4H2O). It was also determined that the gold leaf usually used in byzantine icons was replaced in the case of both icons: the icon number 112 has silver leaf covered with varnish, while the halo of the icon number 113 was created with yellow metallic pigments (realgar or orpigment).The pigments were also identified by determining specific peaks in micro-FTIR spectrums. For natural ultramarine blue the peaks between 628 - 724 cm-1 were assigned; the peaks in the interval 795 - 887 cm-1 confirm the presence of carbonates (calcium and lead based). The earth green pigment (aluminum - silicates) had the peaks between 1464 - 1599, while the carbon black pigment was confirmed by the peaks in the interval 921 - 1060 cm-1. After the pigments and the materials used by the author were identified, the restoration process begun with the following stages: consolidation of the painting layer (fish glue 8% and japanese paper), stopping the xylophagous attack (encapsulation with nitrogen), consolidation of the wood supports (colophon and wax, 1:1), cleaning the painting layer (ethylic alcohol and distilled water, 1:1), filling the gaps and reintegrating the fillings in tratteggio, all followed by the process of varnishing the two icons.
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for such intercity research, all encapsulated in the call for the study of agency:
To embrace innovation in the conceptual approach of studying inter-city relations by moving away from the firm and office/subsidiary as the main unit of analysis by considering the agency of the individual and the ways in which firms penetrate new markets through more flexible modes of ‘non-presence’ (e.g. strategic alliances/networks; franchises; business travel) rather than 100% wholly-owned subsidiaries and office complexes.
To accept the qualitative approach as a means of
commanding position and making use of the master's discourse. As a result, the 'master' subject-planner emerges and, due to their disregard for the production of knowledge (as long as it serves their purpose), bypasses research to directly encapsulate the exercise of planning in a standardising manner. Think, for example, of the principles emanated from the Congrés International d'Achitecture Moderne (CIAM) putting forward the idea that social problems could be, first, reverted and, in the long run, prevented by impinging a 'perfect' geometrical form upon societies. This
socioeconomic processes that support major urban centres and facilitate the thickening and stretching of an urban fabric across territories. [...] Everyday life refers to the social routines, everyday practices and forms of life that emerge (a) as diverse places, territories and landscapes are operationalized in relation to agglomerations, and (b) as a broader urban fabric is thickened and stretched across territories and scales” ( Brenner/Schmid 2015 : 171).
This idea encapsulates the notion of post-suburban transformation extending to the municipalities that are wedged