Search Results

1 - 7 of 7 items :

  • "encapsulation" x
Clear All
Biodegradable Polymer Composites with Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Containing Waste Materials as the Fillers/Biodegradowalne Kompozyty Polimerowe Wypełnione Odpadami Zawierającymi Azot I Fosfor

Abstract

Composites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing waste materials were prepared and studied as materials for encapsulation of mineral fertilizers By-products of biodiesel production (rapeseed cake, crude glycerol), horn meal (waste product of haberdashery) and phosphogypsum (by-product of the production of phosphorus fertilizers) were used as the fillers of the composites. The films of the composites with the different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus were prepared using different fillers or their mixtures. Mechanical, properties of the films, hygroscopicity, solubility in water were studied. The composites developed were used for the encapsulation of mineral fertilizers. It was established that encapsulation resulted in the increase of the time of release of the fertilizers. The developed slow-release fertilizers represent a combination of inorganic and organic compounds. The organic part consists of nitrogen- and phosphorus containing horn meal and rapeseed cake. Since assimilation of organic substances is considerably longer, nitrogen and phosphorus of these components will be available for plants much later than inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus the composite film will not only decrease the rate of desorption of the components from the granules of the fertilizers but will also prolong the impact of the fertilizers on the plants.

Open access
Application Of Nanotechnology In Agriculture And Food Industry, Its Prospects And Risks

Abstract

Nanoagrochemicals, such as nanopesticides, nanofertilizers or plant growth stimulating nanosystems, were primarily designed to increase solubility, enhance bioavailability, targeted delivery, controlled release and/or protection against degradation resulting in the reduced amount of applied active ingredients and finally in a decrease of dose-dependent toxicity/burden. This paper is a comprehensive up-to-date review related to the preparation and the biological activity of nanoformulations enabling gradual release of active ingredient into weeds and the body of pests and controlled release of nutrients to plants. The attention is also devoted to the decrease of direct environmental burden and economic benefits due to application of nanoformulations, where less amount of active ingredient is needed to achieve the same biological effect in comparison with bulk. The application of nanotechnology in the areas such as food packaging, food security, encapsulation of nutrients and development of new functional products is analysed. The use of nanoparticles in biosensors for detection of pathogens and contaminants as well as in DNA and gene delivery is discussed as well. Benefits and health risks of nanoagrochemicals are highlighted, and special attention is given to nanoecotoxicology and guidelines and regulatory documents related to the use of nanoformulations in agriculture and food industry.

Open access
The Study of Stages and Operations Involved in the Preservation and Restoration of two XIX-th Century Icons, on Wooden Support

Abstract

The paper presents the stages and the operations involved in the preservation and restoration of two icons on wooden support, from the XIX-th century, which are part of the heritage of the ”Sfinții Arhangheli Mihail and Gavriil” church, from Galați. The two icon have inventory numbers as part of the collection as followed: 112 for the first icon and 113 for the second one. Both icons have the same theme, ”The Grieving Mother from Rohia” and are made by anonymous painters in egg tempera, on lime wooden support, without ground. Being part of the same collection, they were deposited in the same place and as a direct consequence, they suffer from similar deteriorations and degradations that affect both the support and the painting layer. Both panels are attacked by xylophagous insects and the painting layer has detachments, gaps, cracks, clogged dirt and a cracked and degraded varnish layer. Ten samples taken from the already detached areas were analyzed by optical microscope, SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR. Based on the chemical elements identified in the EDX spectrums, the pigments used to create the painting layer are: ultramarine natural blue Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4, carbon black, earth green, K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2, ocher (FeO), burned or natural umber Fe2O3· H2O + MnO2·n H2O+ Al2O3, lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) and yellow iron oxide (Fe2O3·4H2O). It was also determined that the gold leaf usually used in byzantine icons was replaced in the case of both icons: the icon number 112 has silver leaf covered with varnish, while the halo of the icon number 113 was created with yellow metallic pigments (realgar or orpigment).The pigments were also identified by determining specific peaks in micro-FTIR spectrums. For natural ultramarine blue the peaks between 628 - 724 cm-1 were assigned; the peaks in the interval 795 - 887 cm-1 confirm the presence of carbonates (calcium and lead based). The earth green pigment (aluminum - silicates) had the peaks between 1464 - 1599, while the carbon black pigment was confirmed by the peaks in the interval 921 - 1060 cm-1. After the pigments and the materials used by the author were identified, the restoration process begun with the following stages: consolidation of the painting layer (fish glue 8% and japanese paper), stopping the xylophagous attack (encapsulation with nitrogen), consolidation of the wood supports (colophon and wax, 1:1), cleaning the painting layer (ethylic alcohol and distilled water, 1:1), filling the gaps and reintegrating the fillings in tratteggio, all followed by the process of varnishing the two icons.

Open access
Arsenic Immobilization by Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron / Immobilizacja Arsenu Przez Nanożelazo Na Zerowym Stopniu Utlenienia

contaminated groundwater remediation by entrapped nanoscale zero-valent iron. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability - Proc of the 2011 World Environ Water Resour Congress. 2011;3389-3395. [9] Gupta A, Yunus M, Sankararamakrishnan N. Zerovalent iron encapsulated chitosan nanospheres - A novel adsorbent for the removal of total inorganic Arsenic from aqueous systems. Chemosphere. 2012;86(2):150-155. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.10.003. [10] Krajangpan S, Bezbaruah A, Chisholm B. Groundwater

Open access
Integrated Production of Biofuels and Succinic Acid from Biomass after Thermochemical Pretreatments

.1186/1754-6834-6-16. [29] Zhang J, Hou W, Bao J. Reactors for high solid loading pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. 2015;152. DOI: 10.1007/10_2015_307. [30] Zhang Z, Wong HH, Albertson PL, Harrison MD, Doherty WOS, O’Hara IM. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution. Bioresour Technol. 2015;192:367-373. DOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2015.05.093. [31] Talebnia F. Ethanol Production from Cellulosic Biomass by Encapsulated Saccharomyces

Open access
Adsorption of Malachite Green and Congo Red Dyes from Water: Recent Progress and Future Outlook

chitosan nanoparticles by encapsulation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017;171:132-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2016.07.046. [6] Tu NT, Thien TV, Du PD, Chau VT, Mau TX, Khieu DQ. Adsorptive removal of congo red from aqueous solution using zeolitic imidazolate framework-67. J Environ Chem Eng. 2018;6(2):2269-2280. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.03.031. [7] Ausavasukhi A, Kampoosaen C, Kengnok O. Adsorption characteristics of congo red on carbonized leonardite. J Clean Prod. 2016;134:506-514. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.034. [8] Zhang X, Lin Q, Luo S

Open access
Kinetic and Isotherm Analysis of Cu(II) Adsorption onto Almond Shell (Prunus Dulcis)

from aqueous solutions using selected waste materials: Adsorption and characterisation studies. J Encapsulation Adsorption Sci. 2014;4:25-35. DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2014.41004. [66] Hossain MA, Ngo HH, Guo WS, Setiati T. Adsorption and desorption of copper(II) ions onto garden grass. Bioresour Technol. 2012;121:386-395. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.119. [67] Osman HE, Badwy RK, Ahmad HF. Usage of some agricultural by-products in the removal of some heavy metals from industrial wastewater. J Phytol. 2010;2:51-62. http

Open access